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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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Methanethiol
METHANETHIOL /ˈmɛθeɪnˈθaɪɒl/ (also known as METHYL MERCAPTAN ) is an organosulfur compound with the chemical formula CH 3SH. It is a colorless gas with a distinctive putrid smell. It is a natural substance found in the blood and brain of humans and animals , as well as in plant tissues . It is disposed of through animal feces . It also occurs naturally in certain foods, such as some nuts and cheese . It is one of the main compounds responsible for bad breath and the smell of flatus . Methanethiol
Methanethiol
is classified as a thiol and is sometimes abbreviated as MESH. It is very flammable. CONTENTS * 1 Structure and reactions * 2 Occurrence * 3 Preparation * 4 Uses * 5 Safety * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTURE AND REACTIONSThe molecule is tetrahedral at carbon, like methanol. It is a weak acid , with a pKa of ~10.4, but is about a million times more acidic than methanol
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Controlled Vocabulary
CONTROLLED VOCABULARIES provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings , thesauri , taxonomies and other forms of knowledge organization systems . Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction. CONTENTS * 1 In library and information science * 2 Indexing languages * 3 Applications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEIn library and information science controlled vocabulary is a carefully selected list of words and phrases , which are used to tag units of information (document or work) so that they may be more easily retrieved by a search
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J
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United States National Library Of Medicine
The UNITED STATES NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (NLM), operated by the United States federal government , is the world's largest medical library . Located in Bethesda, Maryland
Bethesda, Maryland
, the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
. Its collections include more than seven million books , journals , technical reports , manuscripts , microfilms , photographs , and images on medicine and related sciences, including some of the world's oldest and rarest works. The current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper . The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman , one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program and a widely respected figure in bioinformatics
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Laboratory
A LABORATORY (CommE /ləˈbɒrətri/ or /ləˈbɒrətəri/ , AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ ; informally, LAB) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments , and measurement may be performed. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Techniques * 4 Equipment and supplies * 5 Specialized types * 6 Safety * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWLaboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber , while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength . A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory , while a psychologist\'s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior
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Author
An AUTHOR is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus also be described as a writer (with any distinction primarily being an implication that an is a writer of one or more major works, such as books or plays). More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. The more specific phrase PUBLISHED AUTHOR refers to an author (especially but not necessarily of books) whose work has been independently accepted for publication by a reputable publisher , versus a self-publishing author or an unpublished one
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Subject Indexing
SUBJECT INDEXING is the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is ABOUT , to summarize its content or to increase its findability . In other words, it is about identifying and describing the SUBJECT of documents. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge. Subject indexing is used in information retrieval especially to create bibliographic indexes to retrieve documents on a particular subject. Examples of academic indexing services are Zentralblatt MATH , Chemical Abstracts
Chemical Abstracts
and PubMed . The index terms were mostly assigned by experts but author keywords are also common. The process of indexing begins with any analysis of the subject of the document
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Thesaurus (information Retrieval)
In the context of information retrieval , a THESAURUS (plural: "thesauri") is a form of controlled vocabulary that seeks to dictate semantic manifestations of metadata in the indexing of content objects. A thesaurus serves to minimise semantic ambiguity by ensuring uniformity and consistency in the storage and retrieval of the manifestations of content objects. ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 defines a content object as "any item that is to be described for inclusion in an information retrieval system, website, or other source of information". The thesaurus aids the assignment of preferred terms to convey semantic metadata associated with the content object. A thesaurus serves to guide both an indexer and a searcher in selecting the same preferred term or combination of preferred terms to represent a given subject
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MEDLINE
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicine , nursing , pharmacy , dentistry , veterinary medicine , and health care . MEDLINE also covers much of the literature in biology and biochemistry , as well as fields such as molecular evolution . Compiled by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE is freely available on the Internet and searchable via PubMed and NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information's Entrez system
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PubMed
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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ClinicalTrials.gov
CLINICALTRIALS.GOV is a registry of clinical trials . It is run by the United States
United States
National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health , and is the largest clinical trials database, currently holding registrations from over 230,000 trials from 195 countries in the world. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Trial record life-cycle * 3 Later developments * 4 Relationship to PubMed
PubMed
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYAs a result of pressure from HIV-infected men in the gay community, who demanded better access to clinical trials, the U.S. Congress passed the Health Omnibus Programs Extension Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-607) which mandated the development of a database of AIDS Clinical Trials Information System (ACTIS)
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Index Medicus
INDEX MEDICUS (IM) is a curated subset of MEDLINE , which is a bibliographic database of life science and biomedical science information, principally scientific journal articles. From 1879 to 2004, Index Medicus was a comprehensive bibliographic index of such articles in the form of a print index or (in later years) its onscreen equivalent. It was begun by John Shaw Billings
John Shaw Billings
, head of the Library of the Surgeon General\'s Office , United States Army
United States Army
. This library later evolved into the United States National Library
Library
of Medicine (NLM)
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List Of MeSH Codes
The following is a LIST OF THE CODES FOR MESH (MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine . Click on the prefixes (A01 etc.) in the list below to see detailed codes. The source for content is from the 2006 MeSH Trees
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