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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed . Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different languages. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Descriptor hierarchy * 1.2 Descriptions * 1.3 Qualifiers * 1.4 Supplements * 2 Use in Medline/ PubMed * 3 Use in ClinicalTrials.gov * 4 Categories * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 _subject headings_, also known as _descriptors_
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Methanethiol
METHANETHIOL /ˈmɛθeɪnˈθaɪɒl/ (also known as METHYL MERCAPTAN ) is an organosulfur compound with the chemical formula CH 3SH. It is a colorless gas with a distinctive putrid smell. It is a natural substance found in the blood and brain of humans and animals , as well as in plant tissues . It is disposed of through animal feces . It also occurs naturally in certain foods, such as some nuts and cheese . It is one of the main compounds responsible for bad breath and the smell of flatus . Methanethiol is classified as a thiol and is sometimes abbreviated as MESH. It is very flammable. CONTENTS * 1 Structure and reactions * 2 Occurrence * 3 Preparation * 4 Uses * 5 Safety * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTURE AND REACTIONSThe molecule is tetrahedral at carbon, like methanol. It is a weak acid , with a p_K_a of ~10.4, but is about a million times more acidic than methanol. The colorless salt can be obtained in this way: CH3SH + CH3ONa → CH3SNa + CH3OH The resulting thiolate anion is a strong nucleophile . It can be oxidized to dimethyl disulfide : 2CH3SH + → CH3SSCH3 + H2O Further oxidation takes the disulfide to methanesulfonic acid, which is odorless. Bleach deodorizes methanethiol in this way. OCCURRENCEMeSH is released as a by-product of kraft pulping in pulp mills
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Controlled Vocabulary
CONTROLLED VOCABULARIES provide a way to organize knowledge for subsequent retrieval. They are used in subject indexing schemes, subject headings , thesauri , taxonomies and other forms of knowledge organization systems . Controlled vocabulary schemes mandate the use of predefined, authorised terms that have been preselected by the designers of the schemes, in contrast to natural language vocabularies, which have no such restriction. CONTENTS * 1 In library and information science * 2 Indexing languages * 3 Applications * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links IN LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCEIn library and information science controlled vocabulary is a carefully selected list of words and phrases , which are used to tag units of information (document or work) so that they may be more easily retrieved by a search. Controlled vocabularies solve the problems of homographs , synonyms and polysemes by a bijection between concepts and authorized terms. In short, controlled vocabularies reduce ambiguity inherent in normal human languages where the same concept can be given different names and ensure consistency
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J. Watson Research Center * Biological Research Centre * Pennington Biomedical Research Center REFERENCES * ^ Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for Success: A Manual and Guide with Case Studies William R. Tash WT right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Research_center additional terms may apply
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United States National Library Of Medicine
The UNITED STATES NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (NLM), operated by the United States federal government , is the world's largest medical library . Located in Bethesda, Maryland , the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health . Its collections include more than seven million books , journals , technical reports , manuscripts , microfilms , photographs , and images on medicine and related sciences, including some of the world's oldest and rarest works. The current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan . CONTENTS * 1 Publications and informational resources * 2 Toxicology and environmental health * 3 Radiation exposure * 4 Extramural division * 5 National Center for Biotechnology Information division * 6 History * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 Further reading * 11 External links PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATIONAL RESOURCESSince 1879, the National Library of Medicine has published the Index Medicus , a monthly guide to articles in nearly five thousand selected journals. The last issue of Index Medicus was printed in December 2004, but this information is offered in the freely accessible PubMed , among the more than fifteen million MEDLINE journal article references and abstracts going back to the 1960s and 1.5 million references going back to the 1950s
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper . The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman , one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program and a widely respected figure in bioinformatics . He also leads an intramural research program, including groups led by Stephen Altschul (another BLAST co-author), David Landsman, Eugene Koonin (a prolific author on comparative genomics ), John Wilbur, Teresa Przytycka, and Zhiyong Lu. David Lipman stood down from his post in May 2017. NCBI is listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories re3data.org
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Laboratory
A LABORATORY (CommE /ləˈbɒrətri/ or /ləˈbɒrətəri/ , AmE /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ ; informally, LAB) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments , and measurement may be performed. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 History * 3 Techniques * 4 Equipment and supplies * 5 Specialized types * 6 Safety * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links OVERVIEWLaboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber , while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength . A chemist or biologist might use a wet laboratory , while a psychologist\'s laboratory might be a room with one-way mirrors and hidden cameras in which to observe behavior. In some laboratories, such as those commonly used by computer scientists , computers (sometimes supercomputers ) are used for either simulations or the analysis of data collected elsewhere. Scientists in other fields will use still other types of laboratories. Engineers use laboratories as well to design, build, and test technological devices
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Author
An AUTHOR is narrowly defined as the originator of any written work and can thus also be described as a writer (with any distinction primarily being an implication that an is a writer of one or more major works, such as books or plays). More broadly defined, an author is "the person who originated or gave existence to anything" and whose authorship determines responsibility for what was created. The more specific phrase PUBLISHED AUTHOR refers to an author (especially but not necessarily of books) whose work has been independently accepted for publication by a reputable publisher , versus a self-publishing author or an unpublished one. CONTENTS * 1 Legal significance of authorship * 2 Philosophical views of the nature of authorship * 3 Relationship with publisher * 4 Relationship with editor * 5 Compensation * 6 See also * 7 References LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTHORSHIP A copyright certificate certifying the authorship for a proof of the Fermat theorem , issued by the State Department of Intellectual Property of Ukraine . Typically, the first owner of a copyright is the person who created the work i.e. the author. But, what if more than one person created the work? Then, a case of joint authorship can be made provided some criteria are met. In the copyright laws of various jurisdictions, there is a necessity for little flexibility regarding what constitutes authorship
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Subject Indexing
SUBJECT INDEXING is the act of describing or classifying a document by index terms or other symbols in order to indicate what the document is ABOUT , to summarize its content or to increase its findability . In other words, it is about identifying and describing the SUBJECT of documents. Indexes are constructed, separately, on three distinct levels: terms in a document such as a book; objects in a collection such as a library; and documents (such as books and articles) within a field of knowledge. Subject indexing is used in information retrieval especially to create bibliographic indexes to retrieve documents on a particular subject. Examples of academic indexing services are Zentralblatt MATH , Chemical Abstracts and PubMed . The index terms were mostly assigned by experts but author keywords are also common. The process of indexing begins with any analysis of the subject of the document. The indexer must then identify terms which appropriately identify the subject either by extracting words directly from the document or assigning words from a controlled vocabulary . The terms in the index are then presented in a systematic order. Indexers must decide how many terms to include and how specific the terms should be. Together this gives a depth of indexing. CONTENTS* 1 Subject analysis * 1.1 Automatic vs
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Thesaurus (information Retrieval)
In the context of information retrieval , a THESAURUS (plural: "thesauri") is a form of controlled vocabulary that seeks to dictate semantic manifestations of metadata in the indexing of content objects. A thesaurus serves to minimise semantic ambiguity by ensuring uniformity and consistency in the storage and retrieval of the manifestations of content objects. ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 defines a content object as "any item that is to be described for inclusion in an information retrieval system, website, or other source of information". The thesaurus aids the assignment of preferred terms to convey semantic metadata associated with the content object. A thesaurus serves to guide both an indexer and a searcher in selecting the same preferred term or combination of preferred terms to represent a given subject. ISO 25964 , the international standard for information retrieval thesauri, defines a thesaurus as a “controlled and structured vocabulary in which concepts are represented by terms, organized so that relationships between concepts are made explicit, and preferred terms are accompanied by lead-in entries for synonyms or quasi-synonyms.” A thesaurus is composed by at least three elements: 1-a list of words (or terms), 2-the relationship amongst the words (or terms), indicated by their hierarchical relative position (e.g. parent/broader term; child/narrower term, synonym, etc.), 3-a set of rules on how to use the thesaurus
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MEDLINE
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information. It includes bibliographic information for articles from academic journals covering medicine , nursing , pharmacy , dentistry , veterinary medicine , and health care . MEDLINE also covers much of the literature in biology and biochemistry , as well as fields such as molecular evolution . Compiled by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE is freely available on the Internet and searchable via PubMed and NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information's Entrez system. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Initial development of MEDLARS * 1.2 MEDLARS Online * 2 Database * 3 Retrieval * 4 Importance * 5 Inclusion of journals * 6 Usage * 7 See also * 8 References HISTORYMEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System) is a computerised biomedical bibliographic retrieval system. It was launched by the National Library of Medicine in 1964 and was the first large scale, computer based, retrospective search service available to the general public. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MEDLARSSince 1879, the National Library of Medicine had published _Index Medicus _, a monthly guide to medical articles in thousands of journals. The huge volume of bibliographic citations were manually compiled
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PubMed
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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ClinicalTrials.gov
CLINICALTRIALS.GOV is a registry of clinical trials . It is run by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health , and is the largest clinical trials database, currently holding registrations from over 230,000 trials from 195 countries in the world. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Trial record life-cycle * 3 Later developments * 4 Relationship to PubMed * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYAs a result of pressure from HIV-infected men in the gay community, who demanded better access to clinical trials, the U.S. Congress passed the Health Omnibus Programs Extension Act of 1988 (Public Law 100-607) which mandated the development of a database of AIDS Clinical Trials Information System (ACTIS). This effort served as an example of what might be done to improve public access to clinical trials, and motivated other disease-related interest groups to push for something similar for all diseases. The Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (Public Act 105-115) amended the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act to require that the NIH create and operate a public information resource, which came to be called ClinicalTrials.gov, tracking drug efficacy studies resulting from approved Investigational New Drug (IND) applications (FDA Regulations 21 CFR Parts 312 and 812)
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Index Medicus
_INDEX MEDICUS_ (_IM_) is a curated subset of MEDLINE , which is a bibliographic database of life science and biomedical science information, principally scientific journal articles. From 1879 to 2004, _Index Medicus_ was a comprehensive bibliographic index of such articles in the form of a print index or (in later years) its onscreen equivalent. It was begun by John Shaw Billings , head of the Library of the Surgeon General\'s Office , United States Army . This library later evolved into the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM). In the 1960s, the NLM began computerizing the indexing work by creating MEDLARS , a bibliographic database , which became MEDLINE . _Index Medicus_ thus became the print presentation of the MEDLINE database's content, which users accessed usually by visiting a library which subscribed to _Index Medicus_ (for example, a university scientist at the university library ). It continued in this role through the 1980s and 1990s, while various electronic presentations of MEDLINE's content also evolved, first with proprietary online services (accessed mostly at libraries) and later with CD-ROMs , then with Entrez and PubMed . As users gradually migrated from print to online use, _Index Medicus_ print subscriptions dwindled
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List Of MeSH Codes
The following is a LIST OF THE CODES FOR MESH (MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS), a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it can also serve as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. It is a product of the United States National Library of Medicine . Click on the prefixes (A01 etc.) in the list below to see detailed codes. The source for content is from the 2006 MeSH Trees
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