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Medical Cannabis
MEDICAL CANNABIS, or MEDICAL MARIJUANA, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by doctors for their patients. The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production restrictions and other governmental regulations. Limited evidence suggests cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy , improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS , and reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms . Short-term use increases the risk of both minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems , risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident. The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The use of medical cannabis is controversial
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Cannabis (drug)
CANNABIS, also known as MARIJUANA among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant intended for medical or recreational use. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids . Cannabis
Cannabis
can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract. Cannabis
Cannabis
is often used for its mental and physical effects , such as a "high" or "stoned" feeling, a general change in perception , euphoria (heightened mood), and an increase in appetite . Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten. They last for between two and six hours. Short term side effects may include a decrease in short-term memory , dry mouth , impaired motor skills, red eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety
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Cannabinoids
A CANNABINOID is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain . Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis . Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects
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Physician
A PHYSICIAN, MEDICAL PRACTITIONER, MEDICAL DOCTOR, or simply DOCTOR is a professional who practises medicine , which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis , and treatment of disease , injury , and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities —or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice . Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology ) underlying diseases and their treatment—the _science _ of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or _craft _ of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world
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Antiemetic
An ANTIEMETIC is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea . Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics , general anaesthetics , and chemotherapy directed against cancer . They may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis , especially if the patient is dehydrated. Antiemetics, though previously thought to cause birth defects, have been proven safe for use by pregnant women in the treatment of morning sickness and the more serious hyperemesis gravidarum . CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 See also * 3 References TYPESAntiemetics including: * 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract . As such, they can be used to treat post-operative and cytotoxic drug nausea however, it is poor in cytotoxic or post-op vomiting
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Chemotherapy
CHEMOTHERAPY (often abbreviated to CHEMO and sometimes CTX or CTX) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents ) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen . Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology . By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons , especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis , and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction )
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HIV/AIDS
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness . Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system , increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis , as well as other opportunistic infections , and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with weight loss
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Chronic Pain
CHRONIC PAIN is pain that lasts a long time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset, though some theorists and researchers have placed the transition from acute to chronic pain at 12 months. Others apply _acute_ to pain that lasts less than 30 days, _chronic_ to pain of more than six months duration, and _subacute_ to pain that lasts from one to six months. A popular alternative definition of _chronic pain_, involving no arbitrarily fixed duration, is "pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing". Epidemiological studies have found that 10.1% to 55.2% of people in various countries have chronic pain. Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. It is often difficult to treat
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Muscle Spasms
A SPASM is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle , a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart. A spasmodic muscle contraction may be caused by many medical conditions, including dystonia . Most commonly, it is a muscle cramp which is accompanied by a sudden burst of pain. A muscle cramp is usually harmless and ceases after a few minutes. It is typically caused by ion imbalance or muscle overload . There are other causes of involuntary muscle contractions, and some of these may cause a health problem . CONTENTS * 1 Description and causes * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTION AND CAUSESVarious kinds of involuntary muscle activity may be referred to as a "spasm". A spasm may be a muscle contraction caused by abnormal nerve stimulation or by abnormal activity of the muscle itself. A series of spasms, or permanent spasms, is called a "spasmism"
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Long-term Effects Of Cannabis
The LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries , research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded. CONTENTS * 1 Memory and intelligence * 2 Dependency * 3 Mental health * 3.1 Acute psychosis * 3.2 Anxiety * 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms * 3.4 Chronic psychosis * 3.4.1 Schizophrenia * 3.5 Depressive disorder * 3.6 Mania symptoms * 3.7 Suicidal behaviour * 4 Gateway drug hypothesis * 5 Physical health * 5.1 Brain * 5.2 Heart and circulation * 5.3 Cancer * 5.3.1 Testicular * 5.3.2 Lung * 5.3.3 Head and neck * 5.4 Respiratory effects * 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects * 5.6 Mortality * 6 See also * 7 References MEMORY AND INTELLIGENCEAcute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory
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Cannabis And Memory
The LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries , research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded. CONTENTS * 1 Memory and intelligence * 2 Dependency * 3 Mental health * 3.1 Acute psychosis * 3.2 Anxiety * 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms * 3.4 Chronic psychosis * 3.4.1 Schizophrenia * 3.5 Depressive disorder * 3.6 Mania symptoms * 3.7 Suicidal behaviour * 4 Gateway drug hypothesis * 5 Physical health * 5.1 Brain * 5.2 Heart and circulation * 5.3 Cancer * 5.3.1 Testicular * 5.3.2 Lung * 5.3.3 Head and neck * 5.4 Respiratory effects * 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects * 5.6 Mortality * 6 See also * 7 References MEMORY AND INTELLIGENCEAcute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory
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Schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real . Common symptoms include false beliefs , unclear or confused thinking , hearing voices that others do not hear , reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation . People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders , major depressive illness , or substance-use disorders . Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time. The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person
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Cannabis
_CANNABIS_ (/ˈkænəbɪs/ ) is a genus of flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae . The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized, _ Cannabis sativa _, _ Cannabis indica _ and _ Cannabis ruderalis _; _C. ruderalis_ may be included within _C. sativa_; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, _C. sativa_. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent . Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils , for medicinal purposes , and as a recreational drug . Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber
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American Academy Of Pediatrics
The AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians , headquartered in Elk Grove Village , Illinois
Illinois
, and maintains its Department of Federal Affairs office in Washington, D.C. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Publications * 3 Policy positions * 3.1 Asthma * 3.2 Elective infant circumcision * 3.3 Female genital cutting * 3.4 Gun Violence Prevention * 3.5 School start times for adolescents * 4 Ethical guidelines to pediatric genetic testing * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BACKGROUNDThe academy was founded in 1930 by 35 pediatricians to address pediatric healthcare standards. It has 64,000 members in primary care and sub-specialist areas. Qualified pediatricians can become fellows (FAAP). The academy has approximately 390 employees, and it runs continuing medical education (CME) programs for pediatricians and sub-specialists
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Tinctures
A TINCTURE is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome ). To qualify as an alcoholic tincture, the extract should have an ethanol percentage of at least 25–60% (50–120 US proof ). Sometimes an alcohol concentration as high as 90% (180 US proof) is used in such a tincture. In herbal medicine, alcoholic tinctures are made with various ethanol concentrations, 25% being the most common. Herbal tinctures are not always made using ethanol as the solvent, though this is most commonly the case. Other solvents include vinegar , glycerol , diethyl ether and propylene glycol , not all of which can be used for internal consumption. Ethanol has the advantage of being an excellent solvent for both acidic and basic (alkaline) constituents. Glycerine can also be used, but when used in tincturing fashion is generally a poorer solvent
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Vaporizer (inhalation Device)
A VAPORIZER or VAPORISER is a device used to vaporize the active ingredients of plant material, commonly cannabis , tobacco , or other herbs or blends for the purpose of inhalation . However, they can also be filled with a mixture of propylene glycol , glycerin , and nicotine . (e.g. tobacco-free nicotine). Vaporizers contain various forms of extraction chambers including straight bore, venturi , or sequential venturi, and are made of materials such as metal or glass. The extracted vapor may be collected in an inflatable bag, or inhaled directly through a hose or pipe. When used properly, cooler temperatures due to lack of combustion result in significantly more efficient extraction of the ingredients. Hence, the irritating and harmful effects of smoking are heavily reduced, as is its secondhand smoke
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