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Medical Cannabis
MEDICAL CANNABIS, or MEDICAL MARIJUANA, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by doctors for their patients. The use of cannabis as a medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production restrictions and other governmental regulations. Limited evidence suggests cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy , improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
, and reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms . Short-term use increases the risk of both minor and major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems , risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident. The Cannabis
Cannabis
plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The use of medical cannabis is controversial. A number of medical organizations have requested removal from the list of Schedule I controlled substances followed by regulatory and scientific review. Others such as the American Academy of Pediatrics in 2015 opposed the legalization of medical cannabis
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Cannabis (drug)
CANNABIS, also known as MARIJUANA among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis
Cannabis
plant intended for medical or recreational use. The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); one of 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids . Cannabis
Cannabis
can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract. Cannabis
Cannabis
is often used for its mental and physical effects , such as a "high" or "stoned" feeling, a general change in perception , euphoria (heightened mood), and an increase in appetite . Onset of effects is within minutes when smoked, and about 30 to 60 minutes when cooked and eaten. They last for between two and six hours. Short term side effects may include a decrease in short-term memory , dry mouth , impaired motor skills, red eyes, and feelings of paranoia or anxiety . Long term side effects may include addiction, decreased mental ability in those who started as teenagers, and behavioral problems in children whose mothers used cannabis during pregnancy. Studies have found a strong relation between cannabis use and the risk of psychosis , though the cause-and-effect relationship is debated. Cannabis
Cannabis
is mostly used recreationally or as a medicinal drug, although it may also be used for religious or spiritual purposes
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Cannabinoids
A CANNABINOID is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain . Ligands for these receptor proteins include the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by animals), the phytocannabinoids (found in cannabis and some other plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis . Cannabidiol
Cannabidiol
(CBD) is another major constituent of the plant. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects. Synthetic cannabinoids encompass a variety of distinct chemical classes: the classical cannabinoids structurally related to THC, the nonclassical cannabinoids (cannabimimetics) including the aminoalkylindoles , 1,5-diarylpyrazoles, quinolines , and arylsulfonamides as well as eicosanoids related to endocannabinoids
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Physician
A PHYSICIAN, MEDICAL PRACTITIONER, MEDICAL DOCTOR, or simply DOCTOR is a professional who practises medicine , which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis , and treatment of disease , injury , and other physical and mental impairments. Physicians may focus their practice on certain disease categories, types of patients and methods of treatment—known as specialities —or they may assume responsibility for the provision of continuing and comprehensive medical care to individuals, families, and communities—known as general practice . Medical practice properly requires both a detailed knowledge of the academic disciplines (such as anatomy and physiology ) underlying diseases and their treatment—the _science _ of medicine—and also a decent competence in its applied practice—the art or _craft _ of medicine. Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world. Degrees and other qualifications vary widely, but there are some common elements, such as medical ethics requiring that physicians show consideration, compassion, and benevolence for their patients
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Antiemetic
An ANTIEMETIC is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea . Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics , general anaesthetics , and chemotherapy directed against cancer . They may be used for severe cases of gastroenteritis , especially if the patient is dehydrated. Antiemetics, though previously thought to cause birth defects, have been proven safe for use by pregnant women in the treatment of morning sickness and the more serious hyperemesis gravidarum . CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 See also * 3 References TYPESAntiemetics including: * 5-HT3 receptor antagonists block serotonin receptors in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract . As such, they can be used to treat post-operative and cytotoxic drug nausea however, it is poor in cytotoxic or post-op vomiting. also a 5-HT3 receptor antagonists * NK1 receptor antagonist * Aprepitant (EMEND) is a commercially available NK1 Receptor antagonist * Casopitant is an investigational NK1 receptor antagonist * Rolapitant (VARUBI) another recently approved drug from this class* Antihistamines (H1 histamine receptor antagonists) are effective in many conditions, including motion sickness, morning sickness in pregnancy, and to combat opioid nausea
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Chemotherapy
CHEMOTHERAPY (often abbreviated to CHEMO and sometimes CTX or CTX) is a category of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents ) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen . Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
may be given with a curative intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms (palliative chemotherapy). Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology . By common usage, the term chemotherapy has come to connote the use of rather non-specific intracellular poisons , especially related to inhibiting the process of cell division known as mitosis , and generally excludes agents that more selectively block extracellular growth signals (i.e. blockers of signal transduction ). To avoid these connotations for recently developed (against specific molecular or genetic targets) therapies which inhibit of growth-promoting signals coming from classic endocrine hormones (primarily estrogens for breast cancer and androgens for prostate cancer) is known as hormonal therapy , while the inhibition of other growth-promoting influences (especially those associated with receptor tyrosine kinases ) is known as targeted therapy
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HIV/AIDS
HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness . Typically, this is followed by a prolonged period with no symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system , increasing the risk of common infections like tuberculosis , as well as other opportunistic infections , and tumors that rarely affect people who have working immune systems. These late symptoms of infection are referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is often also associated with weight loss . HIV
HIV
is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex ), contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding. Some bodily fluids, such as saliva and tears, do not transmit HIV. Methods of prevention include safe sex , needle exchange programs , treating those who are infected , and male circumcision . Disease in a baby can often be prevented by giving both the mother and child antiretroviral medication . There is no cure or vaccine ; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a near-normal life expectancy
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Chronic Pain
CHRONIC PAIN is pain that lasts a long time. In medicine, the distinction between acute and chronic pain is sometimes determined by an arbitrary interval of time since onset; the two most commonly used markers being 3 months and 6 months since onset, though some theorists and researchers have placed the transition from acute to chronic pain at 12 months. Others apply _acute_ to pain that lasts less than 30 days, _chronic_ to pain of more than six months duration, and _subacute_ to pain that lasts from one to six months. A popular alternative definition of _chronic pain_, involving no arbitrarily fixed duration, is "pain that extends beyond the expected period of healing". Epidemiological studies have found that 10.1% to 55.2% of people in various countries have chronic pain. Chronic pain may originate in the body, or in the brain or spinal cord. It is often difficult to treat. Various nonopioid medicines are recommended initially, depending on whether the pain originates from tissue damage or is neuropathic . Psychological treatments including cognitive behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy may be effective for improving quality of life in those with chronic pain. Some people with chronic pain may benefit from opioid treatment while others are harmed. A trial of opioids is only recommended in those with non cancer pain who have no history of either mental illness or substance use disorder and should be stopped if not effective
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Muscle Spasms
A SPASM is a sudden involuntary contraction of a muscle , a group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the heart. A spasmodic muscle contraction may be caused by many medical conditions, including dystonia . Most commonly, it is a muscle cramp which is accompanied by a sudden burst of pain. A muscle cramp is usually harmless and ceases after a few minutes. It is typically caused by ion imbalance or muscle overload . There are other causes of involuntary muscle contractions, and some of these may cause a health problem . CONTENTS * 1 Description and causes * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DESCRIPTION AND CAUSESVarious kinds of involuntary muscle activity may be referred to as a "spasm". A spasm may be a muscle contraction caused by abnormal nerve stimulation or by abnormal activity of the muscle itself. A series of spasms, or permanent spasms, is called a "spasmism". A spasm may lead to muscle strains or tears in tendons and ligaments if the force of the spasm exceeds the tensile strength of the underlying connective tissue. This can occur with a particularly strong spasm or with weakened connective tissue. A hypertonic muscle spasm is a condition of chronic, excessive muscle tone (i.e., tension in a resting muscle). This is the amount of contraction that remains when a muscle is not working. A true hypertonic spasm is caused by malfunctioning feedback nerves. This is much more serious and is permanent unless treated
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Long-term Effects Of Cannabis
The LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries , research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded. CONTENTS * 1 Memory and intelligence * 2 Dependency * 3 Mental health * 3.1 Acute psychosis * 3.2 Anxiety * 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms * 3.4 Chronic psychosis * 3.4.1 Schizophrenia * 3.5 Depressive disorder * 3.6 Mania symptoms * 3.7 Suicidal behaviour * 4 Gateway drug hypothesis * 5 Physical health * 5.1 Brain * 5.2 Heart and circulation * 5.3 Cancer * 5.3.1 Testicular * 5.3.2 Lung * 5.3.3 Head and neck * 5.4 Respiratory effects * 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects * 5.6 Mortality * 6 See also * 7 References MEMORY AND INTELLIGENCEAcute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory. A 2016 review found that chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, was correlated in the long term with lower IQ and chronic cognitive deficits, but it was not clear if chronic use caused the problems or if "persons who have poorer cognitive functioning may be more vulnerable to cannabis use and abuse." A 2013 review had similar findings. Use of cannabis negatively impacts driving skills and leads to an increased risk of crashing
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Cannabis And Memory
The LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF CANNABIS have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries , research presents a challenge; as such, there remains much to be concluded. CONTENTS * 1 Memory and intelligence * 2 Dependency * 3 Mental health * 3.1 Acute psychosis * 3.2 Anxiety * 3.3 Depersonalization/derealization symptoms * 3.4 Chronic psychosis * 3.4.1 Schizophrenia * 3.5 Depressive disorder * 3.6 Mania symptoms * 3.7 Suicidal behaviour * 4 Gateway drug hypothesis * 5 Physical health * 5.1 Brain * 5.2 Heart and circulation * 5.3 Cancer * 5.3.1 Testicular * 5.3.2 Lung * 5.3.3 Head and neck * 5.4 Respiratory effects * 5.5 Reproductive and endocrine effects * 5.6 Mortality * 6 See also * 7 References MEMORY AND INTELLIGENCEAcute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, and short-term memory. A 2016 review found that chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, was correlated in the long term with lower IQ and chronic cognitive deficits, but it was not clear if chronic use caused the problems or if "persons who have poorer cognitive functioning may be more vulnerable to cannabis use and abuse." A 2013 review had similar findings. Use of cannabis negatively impacts driving skills and leads to an increased risk of crashing
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Schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real . Common symptoms include false beliefs , unclear or confused thinking , hearing voices that others do not hear , reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation . People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders , major depressive illness , or substance-use disorders . Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time. The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person's reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013 there is no objective test. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or "multiple personality disorder " – conditions with which it is often confused in public perception. The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling , job training, and social rehabilitation. It is unclear whether typical or atypical antipsychotics are better
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Cannabis
_CANNABIS_ (/ˈkænəbɪs/ ) is a genus of flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae . The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized, _ Cannabis sativa _, _ Cannabis indica _ and _ Cannabis ruderalis _; _C. ruderalis_ may be included within _C. sativa_; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, _C. sativa_. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent . Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils , for medicinal purposes , and as a recreational drug . Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention , some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent . Many plants have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (cannabinoids ), which is obtained by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil , are extracted from the plant. Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally . In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users (3.8% of the population aged 15–64). This percentage has not changed significantly between 1998 and 2014
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American Academy Of Pediatrics
The AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians , headquartered in Elk Grove Village , Illinois
Illinois
, and maintains its Department of Federal Affairs office in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Publications * 3 Policy positions * 3.1 Asthma * 3.2 Elective infant circumcision * 3.3 Female genital cutting * 3.4 Gun Violence Prevention * 3.5 School start times for adolescents * 4 Ethical guidelines to pediatric genetic testing * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BACKGROUNDThe academy was founded in 1930 by 35 pediatricians to address pediatric healthcare standards. It has 64,000 members in primary care and sub-specialist areas. Qualified pediatricians can become fellows (FAAP). The academy has approximately 390 employees, and it runs continuing medical education (CME) programs for pediatricians and sub-specialists. The academy is divided into 14 departments and 26 divisions that assist with carrying out its mission. PUBLICATIONSIt has the largest pediatric publishing program in the world, with more than 300 titles for consumers and over 500 titles for physicians and other health-care professionals. These publications include electronic products, professional references/textbooks, practice management publications, patient education materials and parenting books
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Tinctures
A TINCTURE is typically an alcoholic extract of plant or animal material or solution of such, or of a low volatility substance (such as iodine and mercurochrome ). To qualify as an alcoholic tincture, the extract should have an ethanol percentage of at least 25–60% (50–120 US proof ). Sometimes an alcohol concentration as high as 90% (180 US proof) is used in such a tincture. In herbal medicine, alco