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Medes
The Medes[N 1] (/miːdz/, Old Persian
Old Persian
Māda-, Ancient Greek: Μῆδοι, Hebrew: מָדַי‬) were an ancient Iranian people[N 2] who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran
Iran
and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and located in the Hamadan
Hamadan
(Ecbatana) region.[5] Their emergence in Iran
Iran
is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule
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Prehistory Of Iran
The prehistory of Iran could be divided to Paleolithic, Epipaleolithic, Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
periods as follow:Contents1 Paleolithic 2 Epipaleolithic 3 Neolithic 4 Chalcolithic 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingPaleolithic[edit] One of the potential routes for early human migrations toward southern and eastern Asia is Iran, a country characterized by a wide range of geographic variation and resources, which could support early groups of hominins who wandered into the region
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List Of Kings Of Persia
The following is a list of monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran
Iran
from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
in 550 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979
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Before Christ
The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC
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Median (other)
Median may refer to:Contents1 Mathematics and statistics 2 People 3 Science and technology 4 Other 5 See alsoMathematics and statistics[edit]Median (statistics), in statistics, a number that separates the lowest- and highest-value halves Median (geometry), in geometry, a line joining a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the opposite side Median (graph theory), a vertex m(a,b,c) that belongs to shortest paths between each pair of a, b, and c Median algebra, an algebraic triple product generalising the algebraic properties of the majority function Median graph, undirected graph in which every three vertices a, b, and c have a unique median Geometric median, a point minimizing the sum of distances to a given set of pointsPeople[edit]Median (rapper), a rapper from the U.S
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Circa
Circa
Circa
(from Latin, meaning 'around, about'), usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.[1] Circa
Circa
is widely used in historical writing when the dates of events are not accurately known. When used in date ranges, circa is applied before each approximate date, while dates without circa immediately preceding them are generally assumed to be known with certainty
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Iron Age
Iron
Iron
Age metallurgy Ancient iron production↓ Ancient historyMediterranean, Greater Persia, South Asia, ChinaHistoriographyGreek, Roman, Chinese, MedievalThe Iron
Iron
Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age
Stone Age
(Neolithic) and the Bronze
Bronze
Age. It is an archaeological era in the prehistory and protohistory of Europe
Europe
and the Ancient Near East, and by analogy also used of other parts of the Old World
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Zarmihrids
The Zarmihrid dynasty was a local dynasty of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
which ruled over parts of the mountainous areas of the region since the reign of Sasanian
Sasanian
king Khosrau I
Khosrau I
to 785. The family claimed its origin from a powerful Karen lord named Sukhra, a descendant of Kaveh the blacksmith, the national hero of Iran, and who was one of the leading nobles of the empire during the reign of Balash
Balash
and Kavadh I. According to a traditional story, Sukhra
Sukhra
left two children, Karin and Zarmihr, who helped Khosrau I
Khosrau I
protect the eastern borders of his empire when it was invaded by Turkic nomads. Karin was rewarded with land in the south of Amol, and was given title of Ispahbadh, thus starting the Karen dynasty of Tabaristan
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Monarchy
A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected.[1] Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some[which?] elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Mithra
Mithra
Mithra
(Avestan: 𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, Old Persian: 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça) is the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
angelic Divinity
Divinity
(yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath. In addition to being the Divinity
Divinity
of Contracts, Mithra
Mithra
is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing Protector of Truth, and the Guardian of Cattle, the Harvest, and of The Waters. The Romans attributed their Mithraic mysteries
Mithraic mysteries
(the mystery religion known as Mithraism) to "Persian" (i.e. Zoroastrian) sources relating to Mithra
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Dabuyid Dynasty
The Dabuyid or Gaubarid Dynasty was a Zoroastrian[1] Iranian dynasty that started in the early seventh century as an independent group of rulers, reigning over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and parts of western Khorasan.[2] Dabuyid rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
and Khorasan lasted from ca. AD 642 to the Abbasid
Abbasid
conquest in 760.Contents1 History 2 Dabuyid rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The family's early history is semi-mythical, and recorded by the later historian Ibn Isfandiyar. According to this story, the Dabuyids were descended from a brother of the Sassanid
Sassanid
shah Kavadh I. His grandson Firuz conquered Gilan, and Firuz's grandson Gil, surnamed Gavbara, then extended the family's rule over Tabaristan
Tabaristan
as well
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Herodotus
Herodotus
Herodotus
(/hɪˈrɒdətəs/; Ancient Greek: Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos, Attic Greek
Attic Greek
pronunciation: [hɛː.ró.do.tos]) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides
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Kayanian Dynasty
The Kayanians, also Kays, Kayanids or Kaianids, or Kiani, are a semi-mythological dynasty of Persian tradition and folklore which supposedly ruled after the Pishdadids, and before the historical Achaemenids. Considered collectively, the Kayanian kings are the heroes of the Avesta, the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and of the Shahnameh, Iran's national epic. As an epithet of kings and the reason the dynasty is so called, Middle and New Persian kay(an) originates from Avestan kavi (or kauui) "king" and also "poet-sacrificer" or "poet-priest". The word is also etymologically related to the Avestan notion of kavaēm kharēno, the "divine royal glory" that the Kayanian kings were said to hold
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Qarinvand Dynasty
The Qarinvand dynasty
Qarinvand dynasty
(also spelled Karinvand, Karenvand, and Qarenvand), or simply the Karinids or Qarinids, was an Iranian dynasty that ruled in parts of Tabaristan
Tabaristan
(Mazandaran) in what is now northern Iran
Iran
from the 550s until the 11th-century. They considered themselves as the inheritors of the Dabuyid dynasty, and were known by their titles of Gilgilan and Ispahbadh. They were descended from Sukhra, a Parthian nobleman from the House of Karen, who was the de facto ruler of the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
from 484 to 493.Contents1 History 2 Known Qarinvand rulers 3 References 4 SourcesHistory[edit] The dynasty was founded by Karen, who in return for aiding the Sasanian king Khosrow I
Khosrow I
(r. 531–579) against the Turks, received land to the south of Amol
Amol
in Tabaristan
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Pishdadian Dynasty
Pishdadian (Persian: پیشدادیان‎) is the first dynasty of Iranian people
Iranian people
in the Shahnameh, Avesta
Avesta
and Iranian mythology. The Pishdadian Dynasty is said to have produced the first kings who ruled over the land of Persia
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