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Mechatronics
Mechatronics
Mechatronics
is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering.[1][2] As technology advances, the subfields of engineering multiply and adapt. Mechatronics' aim is a design process that unifies these subfields. Originally, mechatronics just included the combination of mechanics and electronics, therefore the word is a combination of mechanics and electronics; however, as technical systems have become more and more complex the definition has been broadened to include more technical areas. The word "mechatronics" originated in Japanese-English and was created by Tetsuro Mori, an engineer of Yaskawa
Yaskawa
Electric Corporation. The word "mechatronics" was registered as trademark by the company in Japan with the registration number of "46-32714" in 1971
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Internetworking
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks. The resulting system of interconnected networks are called an internetwork, or simply an internet. Internetworking is a combination of the words inter ("between") and networking; not internet-working or international-network. The most notable example of internetworking is the Internet, a network of networks based on many underlying hardware technologies, but unified by an internetworking protocol standard, the Internet
Internet
Protocol Suite, often also referred to as TCP/IP. The smallest amount of effort to create an internet (an internetwork, not the Internet), is to have two LANs of computers connected to each other via a router
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Servomechanism
In control engineering a servomechanism, sometimes shortened to servo, is an automatic device that uses error-sensing negative feedback to correct the action of a mechanism.[1] It usually includes a built-in encoder or other position feedback mechanism to ensure the output is achieving the desired effect.[2] The term correctly applies only to systems where the feedback or error-correction signals help control mechanical position, speed or other parameters.[3] For example, an automotive power window control is not a servomechanism, as there is no automatic feedback that controls position—the operator does this by observation
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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Mars Exploration Rover
NASA's Mars
Mars
Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars
Mars
rovers, Spirit[1] and Opportunity,[2] exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the launch of the two rovers: MER-A Spirit and MER-B
MER-B
Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology; both landed on Mars
Mars
at separate locations in January 2004
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Anti-lock Braking System
An anti-lock braking system or anti-skid braking system[1] (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface according to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation braking systems. It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than many drivers could manage. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces; however, on loose gravel or snow-covered surfaces, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle steering control.[2][3][4] Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have been improved considerably
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Hard Disk
A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk[b] is a data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads, usually arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces.[2] Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data even when powered off.[3][4][5] Introduced by IBM
IBM
in 1956,[6] HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers
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Computer Science
Computer science
Computer science
is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to, information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.[1] Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines
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Systems
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries, surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and expressed in its functioning.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Concepts3.1 Subsystem4 Analysis4.1 Cultural system 4.2 Economic system5 Application of the system concept5.1 In information and computer science 5.2 In engineering and physics 5.3 In social and cognitive sciences and management research 5.4 Pure logical systems 5.5 Applied to strategic thinking6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The term "system" comes from the Latin
Latin
word systēma, in turn from Greek σύστημα systēma: "whole concept made of several parts or members, system", literary "composition".[2] History[edit] According to Marshall McLuhan,"System" means "something to look at"
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Machine Vision
Machine vision
Machine vision
(MV) is the technology and methods used to provide imaging-based automatic inspection and analysis for such applications as automatic inspection, process control, and robot guidance, usually in industry. Machine vision
Machine vision
is a term encompassing a large number of technologies, software and hardware products, integrated systems, actions, methods and expertise. Machine vision
Machine vision
as a systems engineering discipline can be considered distinct from computer vision, a form of computer science
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Sensor
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor. A sensor is always used with other electronics, whether as simple as a light or as complex as a computer. Sensors are used in everyday objects such as touch-sensitive elevator buttons (tactile sensor) and lamps which dim or brighten by touching the base, besides innumerable applications of which most people are never aware. With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement,[1] for example into MARG sensors. Moreover, analog sensors such as potentiometers and force-sensing resistors are still widely used
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Polyarchy
In Western European political science, the term polyarchy poly "many", arkhe "rule")[1] was used by Robert Dahl to describe a form of government in which power is invested in multiple people. It takes the form of neither a dictatorship nor a democracy.[2] This form of government was first implemented in the United States and France and was gradually adopted by many other countries (Dahl, p. 234, 1989). According to Dahl, the fundamental democratic principle is “the continuing responsiveness of the government to the preferences of its citizens, considered as political equals” with unimpaired opportunities (Dahl, 1971)
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Control System
A control system manages, commands, directs, or regulates the behavior of other devices or systems using control loops. It can range from a single home heating controller using a thermostat controlling a domestic boiler to large Industrial control systems
Industrial control systems
which are used for controlling processes or machines. For continuously modulated control, a feedback controller is used to automatically control a process or operation
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Computer Aided Design
Computer-aided design
Computer-aided design
(CAD) is the use of computer systems (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.[1] CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the quality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.[2] CAD output is often in the form of electronic files for print, machining, or other manufacturing operations. The term CADD (for Computer Aided Design
Design
and Drafting) is also used.[3] Its use in designing electronic systems is known as electronic design automation, or EDA
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Actuator
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve. In simple terms, it is a "mover". An actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. The control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. Its main energy source may be an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When it receives a control signal, an actuator responds by converting the signal's energy into mechanical motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g
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Exoskeleton
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletons "skeleton"[1]) is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human. In usage, some of the larger kinds of exoskeletons are known as "shells". Examples of animals with exoskeletons include insects such as grasshoppers and cockroaches, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters. The shells of certain sponges and the various groups of shelled molluscs, including those of snails, clams, tusk shells, chitons and nautilus, are also exoskeletons
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