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Meat Preservation
CURING is any of various food preservation and flavoring processes of foods such as meat , fish and vegetables , by the addition of combinations of salt , nitrates , nitrites , or sugar , with the aim of drawing moisture out of the food by the process of osmosis . Many curing processes also involve smoking , spicing, or cooking . Dehydration was the earliest form of food curing. Because curing increases the solute concentration in the food and hence decreases its water potential , the food becomes inhospitable for the microbe growth that causes food spoilage. Curing can be traced back to antiquity, and was the primary way of preserving meat and fish until the late 19th century. Nitrates and nitrites, in conjunction with salt, are one of the most common agents in curing meat because they further inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum
. They also contribute to the characteristic pink color. Slices of beef in a can. MEAT PRESERVATION in general (of meat from livestock , game , and poultry ) is the set of all treatment processes for preserving the properties, taste, texture, and color of raw, partially cooked, or cooked meats while keeping them edible and safe to consume. Curing has been the dominant method of meat preservation for thousands of years, although modern developments like refrigeration and synthetic preservatives are now beginning to complement and supplant it
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Prosciutto
PROSCIUTTO (/prəˈʃuːtoʊ/ , Italian: , ) is an Italian dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked; this style is called PROSCIUTTO CRUDO in Italian (or simply CRUDO) and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto . A number of regions have their own variations of prosciutto, but the most prized is the Prosciutto di Parma from the Emilia-Romagna region. Prosciutto di Parma CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Manufacture * 4 Use * 5 European Union Protected Designations of Origin * 5.1 Culatello * 6 Pršut * 7 See also * 8 Notes and references * 9 Further reading * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word prosciutto is derived from Latin pro (before) + exsuctus (past participle of exsugere "to suck out "); the Portuguese presunto has the same etymology. Compare also the modern Italian verb prosciugare "to dry thoroughly" (from Latin pro + exsucare "to extract the juices from"). HISTORYAntipasti prepared with prosciutto and melon are "based upon ancient medical principles." MANUFACTURE Salt being added to ham Prosciutto is made from either a pig's or a wild boar's hind leg or thigh, and the base term prosciutto specifically refers to this product. Prosciutto may also be made using the hind leg of other animals, in which case the name of the animal is included in the name of the product, for example "prosciutto cotto d'agnello" ("lamb prosciutto")
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Curing Salt
CURING SALTS are used in food preservation to prevent or slow spoilage by bacteria or fungus . Generally they are used for pickling meats as part of the process to make sausage or cured meat . Curing salts are generally a mixture of table salt and sodium nitrite , which serves to inhibit the growth of bacteria, specifically Clostridium botulinum in an effort to prevent botulism , and helps preserve the color of cured meat. Many also contain red dye that makes them pink to prevent them from being confused with common table salt. Curing salts are not to be confused with Himalayan pink salt , which is pure salt with trace elements that give it a pink color. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Prague Powder #1 * 1.2 Prague Powder #2 * 1.3 Saltpetre * 2 See also * 3 References TYPESThere are many types of curing salts often specific to a country or region. PRAGUE POWDER #1One of the most common curing salts. It is also called Insta Cure #1 or Pink curing salt #1. It contains 6.25% sodium nitrite and 93.75% table salt. It is recommended for meats that require short cures and will be cooked and eaten relatively quickly. Sodium nitrite provides the characteristic flavor and color associated with curing. PRAGUE POWDER #2Also called Pink curing salt #2. It contains 6.25% sodium nitrite , 4% sodium nitrate , and 89.75% table salt
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Sodium Chloride
SODIUM CHLORIDE /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/ , also known as SALT or HALITE , is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NACL, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative . Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Salt in its natural form is known as rock salt or halite . Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per liter, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Sodium Nitrite
SODIUM NITRITE is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Na NO2 . It is a white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is very soluble in water and is hygroscopic . It is a useful precursor to a variety of organic compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, dyes, and pesticides, but it is probably best known as a food additive to prevent botulism . It is on the World Health Organization\'s List of Essential Medicines , the most important medications needed in a basic health system . CONTENTS* 1 Uses * 1.1 Industrial chemistry * 1.2 Medicine * 1.3 Food additive * 1.3.1 Inhibition of microbial growth * 1.3.2 Taste and color * 1.3.3 Inhibition of lipid oxidation * 2 Toxicity * 2.1 Humane toxin for feral hog/wild boar control * 2.2 Nitrosamine * 3 Mechanism of action * 4 Production * 5 Chemical reactions * 6 References * 7 External links USESINDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRYThe main use of sodium nitrite is for the industrial production of organonitrogen compounds. It is a reagent for conversion of amines into diazo compounds, which are key precursors to many dyes, such as diazo dyes . Nitroso compounds are produced from nitrites. These are used in the rubber industry. Other applications include uses in photography . It may also be used as an electrolyte in electrochemical grinding manufacturing processes, typically diluted to about 10% concentration in water
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Table Salt
SODIUM CHLORIDE /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/ , also known as SALT or HALITE , is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NACL, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative . Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Salt in its natural form is known as rock salt or halite . Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per liter, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Food Preservation
FOOD PRESERVATION is to prevent the growth of microorganisms (such as yeasts ), or other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing benign bacteria or fungi to the food), as well as slowing the oxidation of fats that cause rancidity . Food preservation may also include processes that inhibit visual deterioration, such as the enzymatic browning reaction in apples after they are cut during food preparation. Many processes designed to preserve food involve more than one food preservation method. Preserving fruit by turning it into jam, for example, involves boiling (to reduce the fruit’s moisture content and to kill bacteria, etc.), sugaring (to prevent their re-growth) and sealing within an airtight jar (to prevent recontamination). Some traditional methods of preserving food have been shown to have a lower energy input and carbon footprint , when compared to modern methods. Some methods of food preservation are known to create carcinogens . In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization classified processed meat, i.e. meat that has undergone salting, curing, fermenting, and smoking, as "carcinogenic to humans". Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavor is an important aspect of food preservation
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Seasoning
SEASONING is the process of adding salt, herbs, or spices to food to enhance the flavor . CONTENTS * 1 General meaning * 2 Oil infusion * 3 Escoffier * 3.1 Seasonings * 3.2 Condiments * 4 See also * 5 References GENERAL MEANINGSeasonings include herbs and spices , which are themselves frequently referred to as "seasonings". However, _ Larousse Gastronomique _ states that _"to season and to flavour are not the same thing"_, insisting that seasoning includes a large or small amount of salt being added to a preparation. Salt may be used to draw out water , or to magnify a natural flavor of a food making it richer or more delicate, depending on the dish. This type of procedure is akin to curing . For instance, sea salt (a coarser-grained salt) is rubbed into chicken , lamb , and beef to tenderize the meat and improve flavor. Other seasonings like black pepper and basil transfer some of their flavor to the food. A well designed dish may combine seasonings that complement each other. In addition to the choice of herbs and seasoning, the timing of when flavors are added will affect the food that is being cooked. In some cultures, meat may be seasoned by pouring sauce over the dish at the table. A variety of seasoning techniques exist in various cultures. OIL INFUSIONInfused oils are also used for seasoning. There are two methods for doing an infusion—hot and cold
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Meat
MEAT is animal flesh that is eaten as food . :1 Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, pigs and cattle. This eventually led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses . Meat is mainly composed of water, protein , and fat . It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi . Most often, _meat_ refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as offal . :1 _Meat_ is sometimes also used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish , other seafood , poultry , or other animals
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Fish (food)
FISH are consumed as food by many species, including humans. It has been an important source of protein and other nutrients for humans throughout recorded history. In culinary and fishery contexts, the term fish can also include shellfish , such as molluscs , crustaceans and echinoderms . English does not distinguish between fish as an animal and the food prepared from it, as it does with pig vs. pork or cow vs. beef. Some other languages do, as in the Spanish peces versus pescado. The modern English word for fish comes from the Old English word fisc (plural: fiscas) which was pronounced as it is today. English also has the term seafood , which covers fish found in the seas and oceans as well as other marine life used as food. CONTENTS * 1 Species * 2 Preparation * 3 Nutritional value * 4 Health benefits * 5 Health hazards * 5.1 Allergens * 5.2 Biotoxins * 5.3 Mercury and other toxic metals * 5.4 Mislabelling * 5.5 Persistent organic pollutants * 5.6 Parasites * 6 Fish, meat and vegetarians * 7 In religion * 8 Taboos on eating fish * 9 Dishes * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links SPECIESOver 32,000 species of fish have been described, making them the most diverse group of vertebrates. In addition, there are many species of shellfish . However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by humans
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Vegetable
In everyday usage, a VEGETABLE is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a meal. The term _vegetable_ is somewhat arbitrary, and largely defined through culinary and cultural tradition. It normally excludes other food derived from plants such as fruits , nuts , and cereal grains, but includes seeds such as pulses . The original meaning of the word _vegetable_, still used in biology, was to describe all types of plant, as in the terms "vegetable kingdom" and "vegetable matter". Originally, vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world, probably during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, and crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations. China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing, processing, and marketing
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Edible Salt
SODIUM CHLORIDE /ˌsoʊdiəm ˈklɔːraɪd/ , also known as SALT or HALITE , is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NACL, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms . In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative . Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses. Salt in its natural form is known as rock salt or halite . Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater , where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per liter, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general , and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes . The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation
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Nitrate
NITRATE is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO− 3 and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u . Nitrates also describe the organic functional group RONO2 . These nitrate esters are a specialized class of explosives. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 Properties and diet * 3 Occurrence * 4 Uses * 5 Detection * 6 Toxicity * 6.1 Toxicosis * 6.2 Human health effects * 6.3 Marine toxicity * 7 Nitrate overview * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links STRUCTUREThe anion is the conjugate base of nitric acid , consisting of one central nitrogen atom surrounded by three identically bonded oxygen atoms in a trigonal planar arrangement. The nitrate ion carries a formal charge of −1. This results from a combination formal charge in which each of the three oxygens carries a − 2⁄3 charge, whereas the nitrogen carries a +1 charge, all these adding up to formal charge of the polyatomic nitrate ion. This arrangement is commonly used as an example of resonance . Like the isoelectronic carbonate ion, the nitrate ion can be represented by resonance structures: PROPERTIES AND DIET The nitrate ion with the partial charges shown Almost all inorganic nitrate salts are soluble in water at standard temperature and pressure . A common example of an inorganic nitrate salt is potassium nitrate (saltpeter). A rich source of inorganic nitrate in the human body comes from diets rich in leafy green foods, such as spinach and arugula
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Nitrite
The NITRITE ion , which has the chemical formula NO− 2, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths. Upon protonation , the unstable weak acid nitrous acid is produced. Nitrite can be oxidized or reduced, with the product somewhat dependent on the oxidizing/reducing agent and its strength. The nitrite ion is an ambidentate ligand , and is known to bond to metal centers in at least five different ways. Nitrite
Nitrite
is also important in biochemistry as a source of the potent vasodilator nitric oxide . In organic chemistry the –NO2 group is present in nitrous acid esters and nitro compounds. Nitrites are also used in the food production industry for curing meat . Nitrate
Nitrate
or NITRITE (ingested) under conditions that result in endogenous nitrosation has been classified as "_Probably carcinogenic to humans_" (Group 2A ) by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) , the specialized cancer agency of the World Health Organization (WHO) of the United Nations
United Nations

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Sugar
SUGAR is the generic name for sweet, soluble carbohydrates , many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose , and galactose . The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose , a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes ) and it is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea ). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk . Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides . Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars. Diet food substitutes for sugar , include aspartame and sucralose , a chlorinated derivative of sucrose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants and are present in sugarcane and sugar beet in sufficient concentrations for efficient commercial extraction. The world production of sugar in 2011 was about 168 million tonnes. The average person consumes about 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar each year (33.1 kg in developed countries ), equivalent to over 260 food calories per person, per day
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Osmosis
OSMOSIS is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides. It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations. Osmosis
Osmosis
can be made to do work. Osmotic pressure is defined as the external pressure required to be applied so that there is no net movement of solvent across the membrane. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property , meaning that the osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity. Osmosis
Osmosis
is a vital process in biological systems , as biological membranes are semipermeable. In general, these membranes are impermeable to large and polar molecules, such as ions , proteins , and polysaccharides , while being permeable to non-polar and/or hydrophobic molecules like lipids as well as to small molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and nitric oxide
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