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Measurement
MEASUREMENT is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of a measurement is dependent on the context and discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering , measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures . However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences , measurements can have multiple levels , which would include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales. Measurement
Measurement
is a cornerstone of trade , science , technology , and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields
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Council For Scientific And Industrial Research
The COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH (CSIR) is South Africa 's central and premier scientific research and development organisation. It was established by an act of parliament in 1945 and is situated on its own campus in the city of Pretoria
Pretoria
. It is the largest research and development (R&D) organisation in Africa and accounts for about 10% of the entire African R&D budget. It has a staff of approximately 3,000 technical and scientific researchers, often working in multi-disciplinary teams
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SI Base Units
The International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) defines seven units of measure as a basic set from which all other SI units can be derived . The SI BASE UNITS and their physical quantities are the metre for measurement of length , the kilogram for mass , the second for time , the ampere for electric current , the kelvin for temperature , the candela for luminous intensity , and the mole for amount of substance . The SI base units form a set of mutually independent dimensions as required by dimensional analysis commonly employed in science and technology. The names and symbols of SI base units are written in lowercase, except the symbols of those named after a person, which are written with an initial capital letter
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Quantum
In physics , a QUANTUM (plural: QUANTA) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property may be "quantized" is referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization ". This means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only certain discrete values. For example, a photon is a single quantum of light (or of any other form of electromagnetic radiation ), and can be referred to as a "light quantum". Similarly, the energy of an electron bound within an atom is also quantized, and thus can only exist in certain discrete values. The fact that electrons can only exist at discrete energy levels in an atom causes atoms to be stable, and hence matter in general is stable. Quantization is one of the foundations of the much broader physics of quantum mechanics
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Magnitude (mathematics)
In mathematics , MAGNITUDE is the size of a mathematical object , a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind. More formally, an object's magnitude is the displayed result of an ordering (or ranking) of the class of objects to which it belongs
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Spectral Line
A SPECTRAL LINE is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum , resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies. Spectral lines are often used to identify atoms and molecules . These "fingerprints" can be compared to the previously collected "fingerprints" of atoms and molecules, and are thus used to identify the atomic and molecular components of stars and planets which would otherwise be impossible
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Natural Sciences
NATURAL SCIENCE is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena , based on observational and empirical evidence . Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances. Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science (or biological science) and physical science . Physical science is subdivided into branches, including physics , space science , chemistry , and Earth science
Earth science
. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields). In Western society's analytic tradition , the empirical sciences and especially natural sciences use tools from formal sciences , such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature "
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Candela
The CANDELA (/kænˈdɛlə/ or /kænˈdiːlə/ ; symbol: cd) is the SI base unit
SI base unit
of luminous intensity ; that is, luminous power per unit solid angle emitted by a point light source in a particular direction. Luminous intensity
Luminous intensity
is analogous to radiant intensity , but instead of simply adding up the contributions of every wavelength of light in the source's spectrum, the contribution of each wavelength is weighted by the standard luminosity function (a model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths). A common candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one candela. If emission in some directions is blocked by an opaque barrier, the emission would still be approximately one candela in the directions that are not obscured. The word candela means candle in Latin
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Charles Sanders Peirce
CDPT: Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms CP X.Y: Collected Papers, volume x, paragraph y EP X:Y: The Essential Peirce, volume x, page y W X:Y Writings of Charles S. Peirce, volume x, page y * v * t * e CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE (/ˈpɜːrs/ , like "purse"; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher , logician , mathematician , and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism ". He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years. Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics , and for his founding of pragmatism . An innovator in mathematics, statistics , philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician . He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science
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Wavelength
In physics , the WAVELENGTH of a sinusoidal wave is the SPATIAL PERIOD of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency . It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase , such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves , as well as other spatial wave patterns. Wavelength is commonly designated by the Greek letter lambda (λ). The concept can also be applied to periodic waves of non-sinusoidal shape. The term wavelength is also sometimes applied to modulated waves, and to the sinusoidal envelopes of modulated waves or waves formed by interference of several sinusoids
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Sèvres
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. SèVRES (French pronunciation: ( listen )) is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris
Paris
, France
France
. It is located 9.9 kilometres (6.2 miles) from the centre of Paris
Paris
and is in the department of Hauts-de-Seine
Hauts-de-Seine
in the region of Île-de- France
France
. The commune is known for its famous porcelain production at the Manufacture nationale de Sèvres , which was also where the abortive Treaty of Sèvres
Treaty of Sèvres
was signed, and for being the location of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
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Kelvin
The KELVIN SCALE is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero , the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics . The KELVIN (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction  1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin
Kelvin
scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit
Fahrenheit
and degree Celsius
Celsius
, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree
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Ampere
The AMPERE (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp", is the base unit of electric current in the International System of Units (SI). It is named after André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836), French mathematician and physicist, considered the father of electrodynamics . SI defines the ampere in terms of other base units by measuring the electromagnetic force between electrical conductors carrying electric current. The earlier CGS measurement system had two different definitions of current, one essentially the same as the SI's and the other using electric charge as the base unit, with the unit of charge defined by measuring the force between two charged metal plates. The ampere was then defined as one coulomb of charge per second. In SI, the unit of charge, the coulomb, is defined as the charge carried by one ampere during one second
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Tape Measure
A TAPE MEASURE or MEASURING TAPE is a flexible ruler . It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fibre glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool. Its design allows for a measure of great length to be easily carried in pocket or toolkit and permits one to measure around curves or corners. Today it is ubiquitous, even appearing in miniature form as a keychain fob , or novelty item . Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m (300+ ft). CONTENTS * 1 The measuring tapes * 2 History * 3 Design * 3.1 United States * 3.2 United Kingdom * 3.3 Canada * 4 In surveying * 5 References * 6 External links THE MEASURING TAPESTape measures that were intended for use in tailoring or dressmaking were made from flexible cloth or plastic. They are named "sewing tape". These types of tape measures were mainly used for the measuring of the human's waist line
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Us Penny
The UNITED STATES ONE-CENT COIN, often called PENNY, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar . The cent's symbol is ¢. Its obverse has featured the profile of President Abraham Lincoln since 1909, the centennial of his birth. From 1959 (the sesquicentennial of Lincoln's birth) to 2008, the reverse featured the Lincoln Memorial . Four different reverse designs in 2009 honored Lincoln's 200th birthday and a new, "permanent" reverse – the Union Shield – was introduced in 2010. The coin is 0.75 inches (19.05 mm) in diameter and 0.0598 inches (1.52 mm) in thickness. Its weight has varied, depending upon the composition of metals used in its production (see further below). The U.S. Mint 's official name for the coin is "cent" and the U.S. Treasury\'s official name is "one cent piece". The colloquial term penny derives from the British coin of the same name , the pre-decimal version of which had a similar place in the British system
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Behavioral Sciences
The term BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (behavioral science) encompasses the various disciplines and interactions among organisms in the natural world . It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through the study of the past, controlled and naturalistic observation of the present, and disciplined scientific experimentation. It attempts to accomplish legitimate, objective conclusions through rigorous formulations and observation. Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology , psychobiology , and cognitive science . CONTENTS * 1 Difference between behavioral sciences and social sciences * 2 Categories of behavioural sciences * 3 Applications of behavioural sciences * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Selected bibliography DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES AND SOCIAL SCIENCESThe term behavioral sciences is often confused with the term social sciences
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