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McCarran Internal Security Act
The Internal Security Act of 1950, 64 Stat. 987 (Public Law 81-831), also known as the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 or the McCarran Act, after its principal sponsor Sen. Pat McCarran (D-Nevada), is a United States federal law. Congress enacted it over President Harry Truman's veto.Contents1 Provisions 2 Legislative history 3 Constitutionality 4 Use by the U.S. military 5 Amended 6 Fictional reimagining 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksProvisions[edit] Its titles were I: Subversive Activities Control (Subversive Activities Control Act) and II: Emergency Detention (Emergency Detention Act of 1950).[2] The Act required Communist organizations to register with the United States Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons suspected of engaging in subversive activities or otherwise promoting the establishment of a "totalitarian dictatorship," either fascist or communist
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Supreme Court Of The United States
The Supreme Court of the United States
United States
(sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[2]) is the highest federal court of the United States. Established pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution in 1789, it has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and state court cases involving issues of federal law plus original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is generally the final interpreter of federal law including the United States
United States
Constitution, but it may act only within the context of a case in which it has jurisdiction
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McCarran-Walter Act
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (Pub.L. 82–414, 66 Stat. 163, enacted June 27, 1952), also known as the McCarran–Walter Act, codified under Title 8 of the United States Code (8 U.S.C. ch. 12), governs immigration to and citizenship in the United States. It has been in effect since June 27, 1952. Before this Act, a variety of statutes governed immigration law but were not organized within one body of text.Contents1 Veto1.1 Override2 Provisions2.1 Race 2.2 Politics and religion 2.3 Naturalization3 Enforcement 4 Modifications 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksVeto[edit] H.R. 5678 was named after its sponsors, Senator Pat McCarran (D-Nevada), and Congressman Francis Walter (D-Pennsylvania). President Harry Truman, a Democrat, vetoed the Act because he regarded the bill as "un-American" and discriminatory
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Black Power Movement
The Black Power
Black Power
movement was a political movement with the intent to achieve Black Excellence. During the civil rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s, black activists experimented with various forms of self-advocacy, ranging from political lobbying to armed struggle. The movement was originally inspired by the philosophies of pan-Africanism, black nationalism, and socialism, as well as by contemporary events like the Cuban Revolution
Cuban Revolution
and the decolonization of Africa.[1] The movement grew out of the African-American Civil Rights Movement, as many black people came to reject the reformist and pacifist elements of the civil rights movement, and sought a movement that encouraged radical action. Early leaders of Black Power
Black Power
included Robert F. Williams
Robert F

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Pseudo Documentary
A pseudo-documentary is a film or video production that takes the form or style of a documentary film but does not portray real events. Rather, scripted and fictional elements are used to tell the story. The pseudo-documentary, unlike the related mockumentary, is not always intended as satire or humor. It may use documentary camera techniques but with fabricated sets, actors, or situations, and it may use digital effects to alter the filmed scene or even create a wholly synthetic scene.[1][2][3]Contents1 Film1.1 Fake-fiction 1.2 Found or discovered footage2 Television 3 See also 4 ReferencesFilm[edit] Orson Welles
Orson Welles
made use of pseudo-documentary elements in his work. Orson Welles
Orson Welles
gained notoriety with his radio show and hoax War of the Worlds which fooled listeners into thinking the Earth was being invaded by Martians
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Feminist Movement
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement. The movement's priorities vary among nations and communities, and range from opposition to female genital mutilation in one country, to opposition to the glass ceiling in another
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Fifth Amendment To The United States Constitution
The Fifth Amendment (Amendment V) to the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
is part of the Bill of Rights and, among other things, protects individuals from being compelled to be witnesses against themselves in criminal cases. "Pleading the Fifth" is thus a colloquial term for invoking the right that allows witnesses to decline to answer questions where the answers might incriminate them, and generally without having to suffer a penalty for asserting the right. This evidentiary privilege ensures that defendants cannot be compelled to become witnesses at their own trials. If, however, they choose to testify, they are not entitled to the right during cross-examination, where questions are relevant to their testimony on direct examination.[1] The Amendment requires that felonies be tried only upon indictment by a grand jury
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Albertson V. Subversive Activities Control Board
Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 382 U.S. 70 (1965), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled on November 15, 1965, that persons believed to be members of the Communist Party of the United States of America could not be required to register as party members with the Subversive Activities Control Board because the information which party members were required to submit could form the basis of their prosecution for being party members, which was then a crime, and therefore deprived them of their self-incrimination rights under the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution. See also[edit]Communist Party v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 351 U.S. 115 (1956) and 367 U.S. 1 (1961) United States v. Sullivan, 274 U.S. 259 (1927)External links[edit]Text of Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board, 382 U.S
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Aptheker V. Secretary Of State
Aptheker v. Secretary of State, 378 U.S. 500 (1964), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case on the right to travel and passport restrictions as they relate to Fifth Amendment due process rights and First Amendment free speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of association rights. It is the first case in which the US Supreme Court considered the constitutionality of personal restrictions on the right to travel abroad. In Aptheker, the petitioner challenged Section 6 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, which made it a crime for any member of a Communist organization to attempt to use or obtain a passport.Contents1 Background 2 Opinion of the Court2.1 Majority 2.2 Concurrence 2.3 Dissent3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] Appellants Herbert Aptheker and Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
were native born citizens and residents of the United States and had held valid passports
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United States Statutes At Large
The United States Statutes at Large, commonly referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat., are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is originally published as a slip law, which is classified as either public law (abbreviated Pub.L.) or private law (Pvt.L.), and designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications. The session law publication for U.S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organised in chronological order.[1] U.S
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Alien And Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798.[1] They made it harder for an immigrant to become a citizen (Naturalization Act), allowed the president to imprison and deport non-citizens who were deemed dangerous (Alien Friends Act of 1798)[2] or who were from a hostile nation (Alien Enemy Act of 1798),[3] and criminalized making false statements that were critical of the federal government (Sedition Act of 1798).[4] The Federalists argued that the bills strengthened national security during an undeclared naval war with France (1798–1800). Critics argued that they were primarily an attempt to suppress voters who disagreed with the Federalist party and its teachings, and violated the right of freedom of speech in the First Amendment.[5] Three of the acts were repealed after the Democratic-Republican party of Thomas Jefferson came to power
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Hatch Act Of 1939
The Hatch Act of 1939, officially An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, is a United States federal law
United States federal law
whose main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch of the federal government, except the president, vice-president, and certain designated high-level officials,[1] from engaging in some forms of political activity. It went into law on August 2, 1939. The law was named for Senator Carl Hatch of New Mexico. It was most recently amended in 2012.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Provisions 3 Supreme Court challenges 4 Amendments 5 Applicability to U.S
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Elizabeth Bentley
Elizabeth Terrill Bentley (January 1, 1908 – December 3, 1963) was an American spy for the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1938 until 1945. In 1945 she defected from the Communist Party and Soviet intelligence and later (1952) became an informer for the U.S. She exposed two networks of spies, ultimately naming over 80 Americans who had engaged in espionage for the Soviets.[1] When her testimony became public in 1948, it became a media sensation and had a major impact on Soviet espionage cases of the 1950s.[2] Bentley provided no documentary evidence to support her claims and the accuracy of her allegations was long disputed. The subsequent declassification of both Soviet documents and the U.S
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Alger Hiss
Alger Hiss
Alger Hiss
(November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was an American government official who was accused of being a Soviet spy in 1948[1] and convicted of perjury in connection with this charge in 1950. Before he was tried and convicted, he was involved in the establishment of the United Nations
United Nations
both as a U.S. State Department official and as a U.N. official. In later life he worked as a lecturer and author. On August 3, 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a former U.S. Communist Party member, testified under subpoena before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) that Hiss had secretly been a Communist, while in federal service. Called before HUAC, Hiss categorically denied the charge
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Whittaker Chambers
Jay Vivian Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961), known as Whittaker Chambers, was an American editor who denounced his Communist spying and became respected by the American Conservative movement during the 1950s. After early years as a Communist Party member (1925) and Soviet spy (1932–1938), he defected from communism (underground and open party) and worked at Time magazine
Time magazine
(1939–1948). Under subpoena in 1948, he testified in what became Alger Hiss's perjury (espionage) trials (1949–1950) and he became an outspoken anti-communist (all described in his 1952 memoir Witness).[1] Afterwards, he worked briefly as a senior editor at National Review
National Review
(1957–1959)
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