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Mayor–council Government
The mayor–council government system is a system of organization of local government. It is one of the two most common forms of local government in the United States and is also used in Canada. It is the one most frequently adopted in large cities, although the other form, council–manager government, is the typical local government form of more municipalities. Characterized by having a mayor who is elected by the voters, the mayor–council variant may be broken down into two main variations depending on the relationship between the legislative and executive branches, becoming a weak-mayor or a strong-mayor variation based upon the powers of the office
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Mayor
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin
Latin
maior [majˈjɔr], meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role
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Representative Democracy
Representative democracy
Representative democracy
(also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.[2] Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, Ireland is a unitary parliamentary republic, and the United States is a federal republic.[3] It is an element of both the parliamentary and the presidential systems of government and is typically used in a lower chamber such as the House of Commons
House of Commons
(United Kingdom), Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
(India) or Dáil Éireann (Republic of Ireland), and may be curtailed by constitutional constraints such as an upper chamber. It has been described by some political theorists including Robert A
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Municipal Government
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate
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Executive (government)
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Unicameralism
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house.Contents1 Concept 2 List of unicameral legislatures2.1 National 2.2 Territorial 2.3 Subnational2.3.1 Federations 2.3.2 Devolved governments 2.3.3 Other3 List of historical Unicameral legislatures3.1 National 3.2 Subnational4 Unicameralism
Unicameralism
within the subdivisions of the United States 5 Unicameralism
Unicameralism
in the Philippines 6 ReferencesConcept[edit] Unicameral legislatures exist when there is no widely perceived need for multicameralism. Many multicameral legislatures were created to give separate voices to different sectors of society
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Chief Administrative Officer
Chief administrative officers are top-tier executives who supervise the daily operations of a business and are ultimately responsible for its performance
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City Manager
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer (CEO) or chief administrative officer (CAO) in some municipalities.[1]Contents1 Description 2 History 3 Responsibilities 4 Profile 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External linksDescription[edit] Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
suffered a great flood in 1913, and responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy; civil engineers were especially preferred
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a digital object identifier (DOI) is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to identify their referents uniquely
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JSTOR
JSTOR
JSTOR
(/ˈdʒeɪstɔːr/;[3] short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now also includes books and other primary sources, and current issues of journals.[4] It provides full-text searches of almost 2,000 journals. As of 2013[update], more than 8,000 institutions in more than 160 countries had access to JSTOR;[5] most access is by subscription, but some of the site's public domain and open access content is available at no cost to anyone.[6] JSTOR's revenue was $86 million in 2015.[7]Contents1 History 2 Content 3 Access3.1 Aaron Swartz
Aaron Swartz
incident 3.2 Limitations 3.3 Increasing public access4 Use 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksHistory[edit] William G
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City Council
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.Contents1 Australia 2 Ireland 3 Malaysia 4 New Zealand 5 Taiwan 6 United Kingdom6.1 England 6.2 Wales 6.3 Scotland 6.4 Northern Ireland7 Canada and United States 8 Bicameralism 9 See also 10 ReferencesAustralia[edit] Main article: Local government in AustraliaThis section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Because of the differences in legislation between the states, the exact definition of a City
City
Council varies. However, it is generally only those local government areas which have been specifically granted city status (usually on a basis of population) that are entitled to refer to themselves as cities
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Local Government In The United States
House of RepresentativesSpeaker Paul Ryan
Paul Ryan
(R)Majority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R)Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi
Nancy Pelosi
(D)Co
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Council–manager Government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States
United States
and Ireland, the other being the mayor–council government form.[1] Council–manager government form also is used in county governments in the United States
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City Commission Government
City commission government is a form of local government in the United States. In a city commission government, voters elect a small commission, typically of five to seven members, on a plurality-at-large voting basis. These commissioners constitute the legislative body of the city and, as a group, are responsible for taxation, appropriations, ordinances, and other general functions. Individual commissioners are also assigned executive responsibility for a specific aspect of municipal affairs, such as public works, finance, or public safety. This form of government thus blends legislative and executive branch functions in the same body. One commissioner may be designated to function as chairman or mayor, but this largely is a procedural, honorific, or ceremonial designation and typically does not involve additional powers beyond that exercised by the other commissioners
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