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Maya (illusion)
_MAYA_ (IAST: _māyā_), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context. In ancient Vedic literature, Māyā literally implies extraordinary power and wisdom. In later Vedic texts and modern literature dedicated to Indian traditions, Māyā connotes a "magic show, an illusion where things appear to be present but are not what they seem". Māyā is also a spiritual concept connoting "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal", and the "power or the principle that conceals the true character of spiritual reality". In Buddhism, Maya is the name of Gautama Buddha's mother. In Hinduism , Maya is also an epithet for goddess, and the name of a manifestation of Lakshmi
Lakshmi
, the goddess of "wealth, prosperity and love". Maya is also a name for girls
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Maya (other)
MAYA may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Civilizations * 2 Language * 3 Religion and mythology * 4 People * 5 Places * 6 Military * 7 Literature * 8 Film and television * 9 Music * 10 Other uses * 11 See also CIVILIZATIONS* Maya peoples , of southern Mexico and northern Central America * Maya civilization , the historical civilization * Maya art , the art of the Maya
Maya
civilization * Maya numerals , the numeral system used by the
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Maya (Buddhist Mental Factor)
MāYā (Sanskrit; Tibetan wyl.: sgyu) is a Buddhist term translated as "pretense" or "deceit" that is identified as one of the twenty subsidiary unwholesome mental factors within the Mahayana Abhidharma teachings. In this context, it is defined as pretending to exhibit or claiming to have a good quality that one lacks. CONTENTS * 1 Definitions * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 Further reading DEFINITIONSThe Abhidharma-samuccaya states: What is deceit? It is a display of what is not a real quality and is associated with both passion-lust (raga ) and bewilderment-erring (moha ) by being overly attached to wealth and honor. Its function is to provide a basis for a perverse life-style. Alexander Berzin explains: Pretension (sgyu) is in the categories of longing desire (raga ) and naivety (moha ). Because of excessive attachment to our material gain and the respect we receive, and activated by wanting to deceive others, pretension is pretending to exhibit or claiming to have a good quality that we lack. SEE ALSO * Maya (illusion) * Mental factors (Buddhism) REFERENCES * ^ A B Guenther (1975), Kindle Locations 900–901. * ^ Kunsang (2004), p. 25. * ^ Berzin (2006)SOURCES * Berzin, Alexander (2006), Primary Minds and the 51 Mental Factors * Guenther, Herbert V
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Arthur Bowen Davies
ARTHUR BOWEN DAVIES (September 26, 1862 – October 24, 1928) was an avant-garde American artist and influential advocate of modern art in the United States
United States
c. 1910–1928. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Career * 3 Style * 4 Selected works * 5 Pastel
Pastel
drawings * 6 Public collections * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYDavies was born in Utica, New York , the son of David and Phoebe Davies. He was keenly interested in drawing when he was young and, at fifteen, attended a large touring exhibition in his hometown of American landscape art, featuring works by George Inness
George Inness
and members of the Hudson River School. The show had a profound effect on him. He was especially impressed by Inness's tonalist landscapes. After his family relocated to Chicago, Davies studied at the Chicago Academy of Design from 1879 to 1882 and briefly attended the Art Institute of Chicago , before moving to New York City, where he studied at the Art Students League . He worked as a magazine illustrator before devoting himself to painting. In 1892, Davies married Virginia Meriwether, one of New York State's first female physicians
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Indian Philosophy
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY (Sanskrit : _दर्शन or darśana_) comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent . The schools of Indian philosophical thought are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman ; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas . There are six major schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy Nyaya , Vaisheshika , Samkhya , Yoga , Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta , and five major heterodox schools—Jain , Buddhist , Ajivika , Ajñana , and Cārvāka . However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions. The main schools of Indian philosophy were formalised chiefly between 1000 BCE to the early centuries of the Common Era
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Vedic Sanskrit
VEDIC SANSKRIT is an Indo-European language , more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group. It is the ancient language of the Vedas of Hinduism , texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE. It was orally preserved , predating the advent of Brahmi script by several centuries. Vedic Sanskrit is an archaic language, whose consensus translation has been challenging. Extensive ancient literature in the Vedic Sanskrit language has survived into the modern era, and this has been a major source of information about Indo-European parent language. Quite early in the pre-historic era, Sanskrit separated from the Avestan language (an Eastern Iranian language ). The exact century of separation is unknown but this separation of Sanskrit and Avestan occurred certainly before 1800 BCE. Avestan language developed in ancient Persia, was the language of Zoroastrianism , but was a dead language in the Sasanian period . Vedic Sanskrit developed independently in ancient India, evolved into classical Sanskrit after the grammar and linguistic treatise of Pāṇini , and later into many related Indian subcontinent languages in which are found the voluminous ancient and medieval literature of Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism
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Maya (mother Of The Buddha)
QUEEN MāYā OF SAKYA (Māyādevī) was the birth mother of Gautama Buddha , the sage on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded, and the sister of Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī , the first Buddhist nun ordained by the Buddha. In Buddhist tradition Maya died soon after the birth of Buddha, generally said to be seven days afterwards, and came to life again in a Hindu-Buddhist heaven, a pattern that is said to be followed in the births of all Buddhas. Thus Maya did not raise her son who was instead raised by his maternal aunt Mahapajapati Gotami . Maya would, however, on occasion descend from Heaven to give advice to her son. Māyā means "illusion" in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. Māyā is also called Mahāmāyā ("Great Māyā") and Māyādevī ("Queen Māyā"). In Tibetan she is called Gyutrulma and in Japanese is known as Maya-bunin (摩耶夫人). Also Sinhalese known as මහාමායා දේවී (Mahāmāyā Dēvi). CONTENTS * 1 Iconography * 2 Life of Maya * 3 Cross-cultural analogies * 4 See also * 5 References ICONOGRAPHY The birth of Siddhārtha Gautam Buddha from Madhesh
Madhesh
, Gandhara, 2–3rd century CE. In Buddhist literature and art Queen Maya is portrayed as a beautiful fecund woman in the prime of life. Her beauty sparkles like a nugget of pure gold. She has perfumed curls like the large black bee
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Hinduism
HINDUISM is a religion, or a way of life, widely practiced in the Indian subcontinent . Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as _Sanātana Dharma _, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This " Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE). Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, cosmology , shared textual resources , and pilgrimage to sacred sites . Hindu texts are classified into Shruti ("heard") and Smriti ("remembered"). These texts discuss theology , philosophy , mythology , Vedic yajna , Yoga , agamic rituals , and temple building , among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads , the Bhagavad Gita , and the Agamas . Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is also a strong Hindu tradition of the questioning of this authority, to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition
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Lakshmi
_LAKSHMI_ (/ˈləksmiː/ ; Sanskrit : लक्ष्मी, IAST : _lakṣmī_) or LAXMI, is the Hindu goddess of wealth, health, fortune and prosperity. She is the wife and shakti (energy) of Vishnu , one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition. Lakshmi is also an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples. Lakshmi has also been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, and was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism . In Buddhist sects of Tibet, Nepal and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences. Lakshmi is also called Sri or _Thirumagal_ because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, and is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean ( Samudra manthan ) and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort. When Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna , Lakshmi descended as his respective consort
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Maya (given Name)
MAYA is a feminine name with multiple meanings. In Hindu philosophy , Māyā means "illusion " and in Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
, it is also an alternate name of the Hindu goddess Durga
Durga
. According to tradition, QUEEN MāYā OF SAKYA was also the name of the mother of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha . In Hebrew, the name MAYA (מַיָּה/מאיה in Hebrew) is a short form of "ma'ayan," meaning "spring" or "brook." In Old Persian the name means "generous." MAYA can also be a name used as a tribute to the Maya peoples of southern Mexico
Mexico
and northern Central America
Central America
or to the MAYA, a group of Indigenous Australians . Additionally, MAYA can be a name of Japanese origin, with different meanings. Variants include MAYAKO and MAYAKA. MOUNT MAYA is a Japanese mountain named for the mother of Buddha . In the Nepali language, "Maya" means "love." Maia is the eldest of the Pleiades in Greek and Roman mythology and the mother of Hermes. The name is also used as a variant form of the Greek -origin name MAIA (Μαια in Ancient Greek ), the eldest of the Pleiades and the mother of Hermes
Hermes
in Greek and Roman mythology
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Monier Williams
SIR MONIER MONIER-WILLIAMS, KCIE (/ˈmɒnjər/ ; 12 November 1819 – 11 April 1899) was the second Boden Professor of Sanskritat Oxford University , England. He studied, documented and taught Asian languages, especially Sanskrit, Persian and Hindustani. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career * 3 Writings and foundations * 4 Honours * 5 Published works * 5.1 Translations * 5.2 Original works * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links EARLY LIFEMonier Williams was born in Bombay
Bombay
, the son of Colonel Monier Williams, surveyor-general in the Bombay
Bombay
presidency . His surname was "Williams" until 1887 when he added his Christian name to his surname to create the hyphenated "Monier-Williams". In 1822 he was sent to England to be educated at private schools at Hove, Chelsea and Finchley. He was educated at King\'s College School , Balliol College, Oxford (1838–40), the East India Company College(1840–41) and University College, Oxford
University College, Oxford
(1841–44). He married Julia Grantham in 1848. They had six sons and one daughter. He died, aged 79, at Cannes in France. CAREERMonier Williams taught Asian languages, at the East India Company College from 1844 until 1858, when company rule in India ended after the 1857 rebellion
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Jan Gonda
JAN GONDA, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a celebrated Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit. He was born in Gouda in the Netherlands and died in Utrecht . He studied with Willem Caland at Rijksuniversiteit, Utrecht (since 1990 Universiteit Utrecht ) and from 1932 held positions at Utrecht and Leiden. He held the positions of Chair of Sanskrit succeeding Caland from 1929, as well as of Indology from 1932. He published scholarly articles on Indian Sanskrit and Indonesian Javanese texts for sixty years. In 1952, he published his monumental work on _Sanskrit in Indonesia_. His contributions to philology and Vedic literature has been oft cited. Gonda is recognized as one of the twentieth century's leading scholars of Asian language, literature and religion, particularly on texts and topics related to Hinduism and Buddhism. He wrote with ease and elegance in Dutch, English and German, and had a breath-taking range of interests from the ancient literature of Indonesia and India to comparative religion and philology . Like many Orientalist of 20th century, Gonda never visited Asia. However, his lack of field experience was more than compensated for by his encyclopedic knowledge of Indic literature and his profound empathy for the religious culture of Asia. Among his many students was J. A. B
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Adrian Snodgrass
ADRIAN SNODGRASS is an authority in Buddhist studies and Buddhist art . He has developed important theories in the area of hermeneutical philosophy and its application to knowledge production and cross-cultural understanding. Snodgrass is co-editor of the journal Architectural Theory Review and Editor of Architectural Theory. He is an Honorary Life Member of The Asian Arts Society of Australia (TAASA); President of the Australasian Association for Buddhist Studies (AABS); Research Associate in the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning in The University of Sydney; Senior Research Fellow in the School of Languages and Cultures at the same university; and Adjunct Professor in the Centre for Cultural Research at the University of Western Sydney. His son, also called Adrian Snodgrass, is an actor and social justice lawyer who started the Melbourne law firm ASA Law in 2015. WORKSSnodgrass is noted for several books on Asian art and symbolism, and for work developing the theme of hermeneutics in relation to architectural design
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Avesta
The AVESTA /əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism , composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language. Collected during the Sassanid Period of much more ancient oral accounts, according to Jean Kellens , "The book was originally given the name _abestag_, which the Parsees later turned into _Avesta_ and which probably comes from the Old Iranian •upa-stavaka, 'praise (of Ahura Mazda)'.". The Avesta texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect , or by usage. The principal text in the liturgical group is the _ Yasna _, which takes its name from the Yasna ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the _Yasna_ text is recited. The most important portion of the _Yasna_ texts are the five Gathas , consisting of seventeen hymns attributed to Zoroaster himself. These hymns, together with five other short Old Avestan texts that are also part of the _Yasna_, are in the Old (or 'Gathic') Avestan language. The remainder of the _Yasna_'s texts are in Younger Avestan, which is not only from a later stage of the language, but also from a different geographic region. Extensions to the Yasna ceremony include the texts of the _ Vendidad _ and the _ Visperad _
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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism . It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term _Hindu_ has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus ) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu- Muslim wars. A sense of Hindu identity and the term _Hindu_ appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and regional languages
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History Of Hinduism
HISTORY OF HINDUISM denotes a wide variety of related Hindu denominations native to the Indian Subcontinent , most of whom live in modern-day India , Nepal , Pakistan , Bangladesh and Afghanistan . Adherents are also found in the Indonesian island of Bali . Its history overlaps or coincides with the development of Indian religions since Iron Age India . It has thus been called the "oldest living religion" in the world. Scholars regard Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no single founder or source. The history of Hinduism is often divided into periods of development, with the first period being that of the historical Vedic religion dated from about 1900 BCE to 1400 BCE. The subsequent period, between 800 BCE and 200 BCE, is "a turning point between the Vedic religion and Hindu religions", and a formative period for Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Epic and Early Puranic period, from c. 200 BCE to 500 CE, saw the classical "Golden Age" of Hinduism (c. 320-650 CE), which coincides with the Gupta Empire . In this period the six branches of Hindu philosophy evolved, namely <