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Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
(Greek: Μάξιμος Πλανούδης, Máximos Planoúdēs; c. 1260 – c. 1305)[1] was a Byzantine
Byzantine
Greek monk, scholar, anthologist, translator, grammarian and theologian at Constantinople. Through his translations from Latin
Latin
into Greek and from Greek into Latin
Latin
he brought the Greek East and the Latin
Latin
West into closer contact with one another. He is now best known as a compiler of the Greek Anthology.[2]Contents1 Biography 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Maximus Planudes
Maximus Planudes
lived during the reigns of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors Michael VIII and Andronikos II
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius,[a] commonly called Boethius[b] (English: /boʊˈiːθiəs/; also Boetius /-ʃəs/; c. 480–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century
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Ox
An ox (plural oxen), also known as a bullock in Australia and India, is a bovine trained as a draft animal. Oxen are commonly castrated adult male cattle; castration makes the animals easier to control. Cows (adult females) or bulls (intact males) may also be used in some areas. Oxen are used for plowing, for transport (pulling carts, hauling wagons and even riding), for threshing grain by trampling, and for powering machines that grind grain or supply irrigation among other purposes. Oxen may be also used to skid logs in forests, particularly in low-impact, select-cut logging. Oxen are usually yoked in pairs. Light work such as carting household items on good roads might require just one pair, while for heavier work, further pairs would be added as necessary
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Mouse
A mouse (Mus), plural mice is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate. The best known mouse species is the common house mouse (Mus musculus). It is also a popular pet. In some places, certain kinds of field mice are locally common. They are known to invade homes for food and shelter. Domestic mice sold as pets often differ substantially in size from the common house mouse. This is attributable both to breeding and to different conditions in the wild
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Diophantus
Diophantus
Diophantus
of Alexandria
Alexandria
(Ancient Greek: Διόφαντος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; born probably sometime between AD 201 and 215; died around 84 years old, probably sometime between AD 285 and 299) was an Alexandrian Hellenistic mathematician, who was the author of a series of books called Arithmetica, many of which are now lost. Sometimes called "the father of algebra", his texts deal with solving algebraic equations. While reading Claude Gaspard Bachet
Bachet
de Méziriac's edition of Diophantus' Arithmetica, Pierre de Fermat concluded that a certain equation considered by Diophantus
Diophantus
had no solutions, and noted in the margin without elaboration that he had found "a truly marvelous proof of this proposition," now referred to as Fermat's Last Theorem
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Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero[n 1] (/ˈsɪsəroʊ/; Classical Latin: [ˈmaːr.kʊs ˈtʊl.lɪ.ʊs ˈkɪ.kɛ.roː]; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman politician and lawyer, who served as consul in the year 63 BC. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists.[2][3] His influence on the Latin
Latin
language was so immense that the subsequent history of prose, not only in
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Dream Of Scipio
The Dream of Scipio (Latin, Somnium Scipionis), written by Cicero, is the sixth book of De re publica, and describes a fictional dream vision of the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus, set two years before he oversaw the destruction of Carthage
Carthage
in 146 BC.Contents1 Textual history 2 Contents 3 Relation to other works 4 Reception and influence 5 Gallery 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External linksTextual history[edit] The
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Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius
Macrobius, fully Macrobius
Macrobius
Ambrosius Theodosius, also known as Theodosius, was a Roman provincial who lived during the early fifth century, at the transition of the Roman to the Byzantine Empire, and when Latin
Latin
was as widespread as Greek among the elite
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Ovid
Publius Ovidius Naso (Classical Latin: [ˈpu:.blɪ.ʊs ɔˈwɪ.dɪ.ʊs ˈnaː.soː]; 20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid
Ovid
(/ˈɒvɪd/)[1] in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a contemporary of the older Virgil
Virgil
and Horace, with whom he is often ranked as one of the three canonical poets of Latin
Latin
literature. The Imperial scholar Quintilian
Quintilian
considered him the last of the Latin
Latin
love elegists.[2] He enjoyed enormous popularity, but, in one of the mysteries of literary history, was sent by Augustus
Augustus
into exile in a remote province on the Black Sea, where he remained until his death
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Heroides
The Heroides
Heroides
(The Heroines),[1] or Epistulae Heroidum (Letters of Heroines), is a collection of fifteen epistolary poems composed by Ovid
Ovid
in Latin
Latin
elegiac couplets and presented as though written by a selection of aggrieved heroines of Greek and Roman mythology
Roman mythology
in address to their heroic lovers who have in some way mistreated, neglected, or abandoned them
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Metamorphoses (poem)
The Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
(Latin: Metamorphōseōn librī: "Books of Transformations") is a Latin
Latin
narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus. Comprising fifteen books and over 250 myths, the poem chronicles the history of the world from its creation to the deification of Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
within a loose mythico-historical framework. Although meeting the criteria for an epic, the poem defies simple genre classification by its use of varying themes and tones
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De Consolatione Philosophiae
The Consolation of Philosophy
Philosophy
(Latin: De consolatione philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius, written around the year 524. It has been described as the single most important and influential work in the West on Medieval
Medieval
and early Renaissance
Renaissance
Christianity, as well as the last great Western work of the Classical Period.[1][2]Contents1 Description 2 Influence 3 Reconstruction 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 External linksDescription[edit]A golden volume not unworthy of the leisure of Plato
Plato
or Tully — Edward Gibbon[3]The Consolation of Philosophy
Philosophy
was written in AD 523 during a one-year imprisonment Boethius
Boethius
served while awaiting trial – and eventual execution – for the alleged crime of treason under the Ostrogothic King Theodoric the Great
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Byzantine
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Augustine Of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
(/ɔːˈɡʌstɪn/; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430)[1] was an early Christian theologian
Christian theologian
and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity
Western Christianity
and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius
Hippo Regius
in north Africa and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers
Church Fathers
in Western Christianity
Christianity
for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God, On Christian Doctrine
On Christian Doctrine
and Confessions. According to his contemporary Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith".[note 1] In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism, later to neo-Platonism
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Palatine Anthology
The Palatine Anthology
Palatine Anthology
(or Anthologia Palatina), sometimes abbreviated AP, is the collection of Greek poems and epigrams discovered in 1606 in the Palatine Library in Heidelberg.[1] It is based on the lost collection of Constantine Cephalas of the 10th century, which has been composed using older anthologies. It contains material from the 7th century BC until 600 AD and later on was the main part of the Greek Anthology which also included the Anthology of Planudes[2] and more material. The manuscript of the Palatine Anthology
Palatine Anthology
was discovered by Saumaise (Salmasius) in 1606 in the Palatine library
Palatine library
at Heidelberg[1] (Codex Palatinus 23). In 1623, after the Thirty Years' War, it was sent with the rest of the Palatine Library to Rome as a present from Maximilian I of Bavaria to Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV
and it was kept in the Vatican Library
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