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Massif
In geology, a massif ( /mæˈsiːf/ or /ˈmæsɪf/) is a section of a planet's crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole. The term also refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is frequently used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain. The massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology.[1] The word is taken from French (in which the word also means "massive"), where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Tectonic Plate
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Cydonia (region Of Mars)
Coordinates: 40°44′N 9°28′W / 40.74°N 9.46°W / 40.74; -9.46Small part of the Cydonia region, taken by the Viking 1
Viking 1
orbiter and released by NASA/ JPL
JPL
on July 25, 1976Cydonia (/sɪˈdoʊniə/, /saɪˈdoʊniə/) is a region on the planet Mars
Mars
that has attracted both scientific[1] and popular interest.[2][3] The name originally referred to the albedo feature (distinctively coloured area) that was visible from Earthbound telescopes
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Auvergne (province)
The history of the Auvergne
Auvergne
dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was originally the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne.Contents1 History 2 Economic history 3 Cultural history 4 Notable residents 5 Notable fictional residents 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] Auvergne
Auvergne
was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix, to conquest by the Roman Empire. Christianized by Saint Austremoine, Auvergne
Auvergne
was quite prosperous during the Roman period
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Mali
Coordinates: 17°N 4°W / 17°N 4°W / 17; -4Republic of MaliRépublique du Mali  (French) Mali
Mali
ka Fasojamana  (Bambara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Un peuple, un but, une foi" (French) "One people, one goal, one faith"Anthem: Le Mali  (French)[1]Location of  Mali  (green)Capital and largest city Bamako 12°39′N 8°0′W / 12.650°N 8.000°W / 12.650; -8.000Official languages FrenchNational languagesBambara Bomu Tieyaxo BozoToro So DogonMaasina Fulfulde Hassaniya Arabic Mama
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)FlagEmblemMotto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850Largest city
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Nepal
Nepal
Nepal
(/nəˈpɔːl/ ( listen);[12] Nepali: नेपाल  Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic
Republic
of Nepal
Nepal
(Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl),[13] is a landlocked country in South Asia
South Asia
located in the Himalaya. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area.[2][14] It borders China
China
in the north and India
India
in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh
Bangladesh
is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan
Bhutan
is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim
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Climbing
Climbing
Climbing
is the activity of using one's hands, feet, or any other part of the body to ascend a steep object. It is done recreationally, competitively, in trades that rely on it, and in emergency rescue and military operations. It is done indoors and out, on natural and man-made structures.Contents1 Types 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksTypes[edit] Climbing
Climbing
activities include:Bouldering: Ascending boulders or small outcrops, often with climbing shoes and a chalk bag or bucket. Usually, instead of using a safety rope from above, injury is avoided using a crash pad and a human spotter (to direct a falling climber on to the pad
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Mountain
A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism. These forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, and glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level
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Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics
Plate tectonics
(from the Late Latin
Late Latin
tectonicus, from the Greek: τεκτονικός "pertaining to building")[1] is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth
Earth
between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago. The model builds on the concept of continental drift, an idea developed during the first decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken into tectonic plates. The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Lithospheric Flexure
The lithospheric flexure (also called regional isostasy) is the process by which the lithosphere (rigid outer layer of the Earth) bends under the action of forces such as the weight of a growing orogen or changes in ice thickness related to (de)glaciations. The lithosphere is a thin, outer, rigid layer of the Earth resting on the asthenosphere, a viscous layer that in geological time scales behaves as a viscous fluid. Thus, when loaded, the lithosphere progressively reaches an isostatic equilibrium, which is the name of the Archimedes principle applied to these geological settings.[1] This phenomenon was first described in the late 19th century to explain the shorelines uplifted in Scandinavia due to the removal of large ice massed during the last glaciation. G. K. Gilbert
G. K

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