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Marxist Philosophy
Marxist
Marxist
philosophy or Marxist
Marxist
theory are works in philosophy that are strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory, or works written by Marxists. Marxist
Marxist
philosophy may be broadly divided into Western Marxism, which drew out of various sources, and the official philosophy in the Soviet Union, which enforced a rigid reading of Marx called dialectical materialism, in particular during the 1930s. Marxist
Marxist
philosophy is not a strictly defined sub-field of philosophy, because the diverse influence of Marxist
Marxist
theory has extended into fields as varied as aesthetics, ethics, ontology, epistemology, theoretical psychology and philosophy of science, as well as its obvious influence on political philosophy and the philosophy of history
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Marxian Class Theory
In Marxism, Marxian class theory
Marxian class theory
asserts that an individual’s position within a class hierarchy is determined by his or her role in the production process, and argues that political and ideological consciousness is determined by class position.[1] A class is those who share common economic interests, are conscious of those interests, and engage in collective action which advances those interests.[2] Within Marxian class theory, the structure of the production process forms the basis of class construction. To Marx, a class is a group with intrinsic tendencies and interests that differ from those of other groups within society, the basis of a fundamental antagonism between such groups
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Wage Labour
Wage
Wage
labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract.[1] These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined.[2] In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention
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Factors Of Production (Marxism)
Production
Production
may be: In Economics: Production
Production
(economics) Outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services) Produc
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The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
(originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political documents
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
Politics
Politics
(from Greek: πολιτικά, translit. Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.[1] It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state.[2] In modern nation states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas. They agree to take the same position on many issues, and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders.[3] An election is usually a competition between different parties.[4] Some examples of political parties are the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Tories
Tories
in Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Indian National Congress. Politics
Politics
is a multifaceted word
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Das Kapital
Capital. Critique of Political Economy (German: Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, pronounced [das kapiˈtaːl, kʁiːtɪk deːɐ pɔliːtɪʃən øːkoːnoːmiː] also known as just Das Kapital; 1867–1883) by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
is a foundational theoretical text in materialist philosophy, economics and politics.[1] Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production, in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo
David Ricardo
and John Stuart Mill. Marx did not live to publish the planned second and third parts, but they were both completed from his notes and published after his death by his colleague Friedrich Engels
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Class Conflict
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes. The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of communist Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Capital (economics)
In economics, capital consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. Capital goods, real capital, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services.[1] Adam Smith
Adam Smith
defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510.[2] How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable
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Capitalist Mode Of Production (Marxist Theory)
In Karl Marx's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the capitalist mode of production refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies. Private money-making in various forms (renting, banking, merchant trade, production for profit and so on) preceded the development of the capitalist mode of production as such
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Historical Determinism
Historical determinism is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions. See also[edit]Geographic determinism Geopolitics Bad faith (existentialism) Determinism Economic determinism False consciousness False necessity Free Will Human nature Hegelianism Dialectical materialism Self determinationExternal links[edit]Abhijit V. Banerjee and Esther Duflo
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Productive Forces
"Productive forces", "productive powers", or "forces of production" (in German, Produktivkräfte), is a central idea in Marxism
Marxism
and historical materialism. In Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Frederick Engels's own critique of political economy, it refers to the combination of the means of labor (tools, machinery, land, infrastructure, and so on) with human labour power. Marx and Engels probably derived the concept from Adam Smith's reference to the "productive powers of labour" (see e.g
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Scientific Socialism
Scientific socialism
Scientific socialism
is a term coined in 1840 by Pierre-Joseph Proudhon in his What is Property? to mean a society ruled by a scientific government, i.e. one whose sovereignity rests upon reason, rather than sheer will:Thus, in a given society, the authority of man over man is inversely proportional to the stage of intellectual development which that society has reached; and the probable duration of that authority can be calculated from the more or less general desire for a true government, — that is, for a scientific government. And just as the right of force and the right of artifice retreat before the steady advance of justice, and must finally be extinguished in equality, so the sovereignty of the will yields to the sovereignty of the reason, and must at last be lost in scientific socialism.[1]Later in 1880, Friedrich Engels[2] used the term to describe Karl Marx's social-political-economic theory
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Socialist Mode Of Production
In Marxist theory, socialism (also called the socialist mode of production) refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism. The Marxist definition of socialism is a mode of production where the sole criterion for production is use-value and therefore the law of value no longer directs economic activity. Marxist production for use is coordinated through conscious economic planning, while distribution of economic output is based on the principle of to each according to his contribution
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Surplus Product
Surplus product
Surplus product
(German: Mehrprodukt) is an economic concept explicitly theorised by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
in his critique of political economy
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Surplus Value
Surplus value
Surplus value
is a central concept in Karl Marx's critique of political economy. "Surplus value" is a translation of the German word "Mehrwert", which simply means value added (sales revenue less the cost of materials used up). Conventionally, value-added is equal to the sum of gross wage income and gross profit income. However, Marx uses the term Mehrwert to describe the yield, profit or return on production capital invested, i.e. the amount of the increase in the value of capital
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