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Marxism
MARXISM is a form of socioeconomic analysis that analyses class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Marxist methodology originally used a method of economic and sociopolitical inquiry known as historical materialism to analyze and critique the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change. According to Marxist perspective, class conflict within capitalism arises due to intensifying contradictions between the highly productive mechanized and socialized production performed by the proletariat , and the private ownership and appropriation of the surplus product (profit) by a small minority of the population who are private owners called the bourgeoisie
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Private Property
PRIVATE PROPERTY is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities . Private property
Private property
is distinguishable from public property , which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative ) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities . Private property
Private property
is further distinguished from personal property , which refers to property for personal use and consumption. Private property
Private property
is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economics * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORY Gate with a private property sign. Prior to the 18th century, English-speakers generally used the word "property" in reference to land ownership
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A Contribution To The Critique Of Political Economy
A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Zur Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie) is a book by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
, first published in 1859. The book is mainly an analysis of capitalism and quantity theory of money , achieved by critiquing the writings of the leading theoretical exponents of capitalism at that time: these were the political economists , nowadays often referred to as the classical economists ; Adam Smith (1723–90) and David Ricardo
David Ricardo
(1772–1823) are the foremost representatives of the genre. CONTENTS * 1 Significance * 2 Editions * 3 Notes * 4 References SIGNIFICANCEMuch of the Critique was later incorporated by Marx into his magnum opus, Capital
Capital
(Volume I) , published in 1867, and the Critique is generally considered to be of secondary importance among Marx's writings. This does not apply, however, to the Preface of the Critique
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Capital (economics)
In economics , CAPITAL consists of anything that can enhance a person's power to perform economically useful work. CAPITAL GOODS, REAL CAPITAL, or capital assets are already-produced, durable goods or any non-financial asset that is used in production of goods or services . Adam Smith defines capital as "That part of a man's stock which he expects to afford him revenue". The term "stock" is derived from the Old English word for stump or tree trunk. It has been used to refer to all the moveable property of a farm since at least 1510. How a capital good is maintained or returned to its pre-production state varies with the type of capital involved. In most cases capital is replaced after a depreciation period as newer forms of capital make continued use of current capital non profitable. It is also possible that advances make an obsolete form of capital practical again
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Theses On Feuerbach
The "THESES ON FEUERBACH" are eleven short philosophical notes written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
as a basic outline for the first chapter of the book The German Ideology in 1845. Like the book for which they were written, the theses were never published in Marx's lifetime, seeing print for the first time in 1888 as an appendix to a pamphlet by his co-thinker Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. The document is best remembered for the epigrammatic 11th thesis and final line: "Philosophers have hitherto only interpreted the world in various ways; the point is to change it." CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Background * 1.2 Content * 1.3 Publication history * 1.4 Uses of the text * 2 See also * 3 Footnotes * 4 External links HISTORYBACKGROUNDIn February 1845 Karl Marx
Karl Marx
was deported from France at the behest of minister of foreign affairs François Guizot
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The Communist Manifesto
THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO (originally MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
. Commissioned by the Communist League
Communist League
and originally published in London (in German as Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei) just as the revolutions of 1848 began to erupt, the Manifesto was later recognised as one of the world's most influential political manuscripts. It presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the problems of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future forms
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Wage Labour
WAGE LABOUR (also WAGE LABOR in American English ) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer , where the worker sells his or her labour power under a formal or informal employment contract . These transactions usually occur in a labour market where wages are market determined. In exchange for the wages paid, the work product generally becomes the undifferentiated property of the employer, except for special cases such as the vesting of intellectual property patents in the United States where patent rights are usually vested in the employee personally responsible for the invention. A WAGE LABOURER is a person whose primary means of income is from the selling of his or her labour power in this way. In modern mixed economies such as those of the OECD countries, it is currently the most common form of work arrangement
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Das Kapital
CAPITAL: CRITIQUE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (German : Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, pronounced ; 1867–1883) by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
is a foundational theoretical text in communist philosophy, economics and politics. Marx aimed to reveal the economic patterns underpinning the capitalist mode of production , in contrast to classical political economists such as Adam Smith , Jean-Baptiste Say , David Ricardo
David Ricardo
and John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill

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Class Conflict
CLASS CONFLICT, frequently referred to as CLASS WARFARE or CLASS STRUGGLE, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes . The view that the class struggle provides the lever for radical social change for the majority is central to the work of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin . Class conflict
Class conflict
can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor; indirect violence, such as deaths from poverty, starvation, illness or unsafe working conditions; coercion, such as the threat of losing a job or the pulling of an important investment; or ideologically, such as with books and articles
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Historical Determinism
HISTORICAL DETERMINISM is the stance that events are historically predetermined or currently constrained by various forces. Historical determinism can be understood in contrast to its negation, i.e. the rejection of historical determinism. Some political philosophies (e.g. Early and Stalinist Marxism
Marxism
) assert a historical materialism of either predetermination or constraint, or both. Used as a pejorative, it is normally meant to designate an overdetermination of present possibilities by historical conditions
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Communist State
A COMMUNIST STATE (sometimes referred as WORKERS\' STATE) is a state that is usually administered and governed by a single party representing the proletariat , guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism . There have been several instances of Communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-Party organisations, such as trade unions , factory committees , and direct democratic participation. The term "Communist state" is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries. However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism; they refer to themselves as Socialist states or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism
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Capitalist Mode Of Production (Marxist Theory)
In Karl Marx 's critique of political economy and subsequent Marxian analyses, the CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION refers to the systems of organizing production and distribution within capitalist societies . Private money-making in various forms (renting, banking, merchant trade, production for profit , etc.) preceded the development of the capitalist mode of production as such. The capitalist mode of production proper, based on wage-labour and private ownership of the means of production, and on industrial technology, began to grow rapidly in Western Europe from the industrial revolution , later extending to most of the world. The capitalist mode of production is characterized by private ownership of the means of production , extraction of surplus value by the owning class for the purpose of capital accumulation , wage-based labour , and, at least as far as commodities are concerned, being market-based
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Capital Accumulation
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION (also termed THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit , rent , interest , royalties or capital gains . The process of capital accumulation forms the basis of capitalism , and is one of the defining characteristics of a capitalist economic system . In a more broad sense, capital accumulation may refer to the gathering or amassing of any objects of value as judged by one's perceived reproductive interest group
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The German Ideology
THE GERMAN IDEOLOGY (German: Die deutsche Ideologie) is a set of manuscripts written by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
around April or early May 1846. Marx and Engels did not find a publisher, but the work was later retrieved and published for the first time in 1932 by David Riazanov through the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow
Moscow
. The multi-part book consists of many satirically written polemics against Bruno Bauer
Bruno Bauer
, other Young Hegelians
Young Hegelians
, and Max Stirner 's The Ego and Its Own (1844). Part I, however, is a work of exposition giving the appearance of being the work for which the "Theses on Feuerbach " served as an outline. The work is a restatement of the theory of history Marx was beginning to call the "materialist conception of history "
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Grundrisse
The GRUNDRISSE DER KRITIK DER POLITISCHEN ÖKONOMIE (Fundamentals of Political Economy Criticism) is a lengthy, unfinished manuscript by the German philosopher Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. The series of seven notebooks were rough-drafted by Marx, chiefly for purposes of self-clarification, during the winter of 1857-8. Left aside by Marx in 1858, it remained unpublished until 1939. CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Dissemination * 3 The Grundrisse\'s influence * 4 Footnotes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links CONTENTSThe Grundrisse
Grundrisse
is very wide-ranging in subject matter and covers all six sections of Marx's economics (of which only one, the first volume of Das Kapital , ever reached a final form). It is often described as the rough draft of Das Kapital, although there is considerable disagreement about the exact relationship between the two texts, particularly around the issue of methodology
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Dialectics Of Nature
DIALECTICS OF NATURE (German : Dialektik der Natur) is an unfinished 1883 work by Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science. HISTORY AND CONTENTSIn his 1939 preface to the work, the biologist J. B. S. Haldane states "most of the manuscript seems to have been written between 1872 and 1882, that is to say it refers to the science" of that era. "Hence it is often hard to follow if one does not know the history of the scientific practice of that time. The idea of what is now called the conservation of energy was beginning to permeate physics, chemistry and biology, but it was still very incompletely realised, and still more incompletely applied. Words such as 'force', 'motion', and 'vis viva' were used where we should now speak of energy"
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