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Marthonmala Family
In the context of human society, a family (from Latin: familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family")[citation needed] or some combination of these.[citation needed] The purpose of families is to maintain the well-being of its members and of society. Ideally, families would offer predictability, structure, and safety as members mature and participate in the community.[1] In most societies, it is within families children acquire socialization for life outside the family. Additionally, as the basic unit for meeting the basic needs of its members, it provides a sense of boundaries for performing tasks in a heterosexual environment, ideally builds a person into a functional adult, transmits culture, and ensures continuity of humankind with precedents of knowledge
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Family (biology)
Family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy; it is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin
Latin
in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as being the "walnut family". What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Avunculate
The avunculate, sometimes called avunculism or avuncularism, is any social institution where a special relationship exists between an uncle and his sisters' children.[1] This relationship can be formal or informal, depending on the society. Early anthropological research focused on the association between the avunculate and matrilineal descent, while later research has expanded to consider the avunculate in general society.Contents1 Definition 2 Avunculocal societies 3 Cultures with a formal avunculate 4 Anthropology
Anthropology
research 5 Avunculate marriage 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further readingDefinition[edit] The term avunculate comes from the Latin avunculus, the maternal uncle. The 1989 Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
defines "avunculate" as follows:"Avunculate
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Lineage (anthropology)
A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are traced through mothers or fathers, respectively. Whether matrilineal or patrilineal descent is considered most significant differs from culture to culture.This article relating to anthropology is a stub
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Clan
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship[1] and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. Clans in indigenous societies tend to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government and are in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show they are an independent clan. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolic, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this "ancestor" is non-human, it is referred to as a totem, which is frequently an animal. The word clan is derived from the Gaelic clann[1] meaning "children" or "progeny"; it is not from the word for "family" in either Irish[2][3] or Scottish Gaelic
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Cohabitation
Cohabitation
Cohabitation
is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together. Such arrangements have become increasingly common in Western countries during the past few decades, being led by changing social views, especially regarding marriage, gender roles and religion. They often involve a romantic and/or sexually intimate relationship on a long-term or permanent basis. More broadly, the term cohabitation can mean any number of people living together
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Fictive Kinship
Fictive kinship is a term used by anthropologists and ethnographers to describe forms of kinship or social ties that are based on neither consanguineal (blood ties) nor affinal ("by marriage") ties, in contrast to true kinship ties. To the extent that consanguineal and affinal kinship ties might be considered real or true kinship, the term fictive kinship has in the past been used to refer to those kinship ties that are fictive, in the sense of not-real. Invoking the concept as a cross-culturally valid anthropological category therefore rests on the presumption that the inverse category of "(true) kinship" built around consanguinity and affinity is similarly cross-culturally valid. Use of the term was common until the mid-to-late twentieth century, when anthropology effectively deconstructed and revised many of the concepts and categories around the study of kinship and social ties
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Milk Kinship
Milk kinship, formed during nursing by a non-biological mother, was a form of fostering allegiance with fellow community members. This particular form of kinship did not exclude particular groups, such that class and other hierarchal systems did not matter in terms of milk kinship participation. Traditionally speaking, this practice predates the early modern period, though it became a widely used mechanism for developing alliances in many hierarchical societies during that time. Milk kinship used the practice of breast feeding by a wet nurse to feed a child either from the same community, or a neighbouring one
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Nurture Kinship
The concept of nurture kinship in the anthropological study of human social relationships (kinship) highlights the extent to which such relationships are brought into being through the performance of various acts of nurture between individuals. Additionally the concept highlights ethnographic findings that, in a wide swath of human societies, people understand, conceptualize and symbolize their relationships predominantly in terms of giving, receiving and sharing nurture. The concept stands in contrast to the earlier anthropological concepts of human kinship relations being fundamentally based on "blood ties", some other form of shared substance, or a proxy for these (as in fictive kinship), and the accompanying notion that people universally understand their social relationships predominantly in these terms. The nurture kinship perspective on the ontology of social ties, and how people conceptualize them, has become stronger in the wake of David M
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Cognatic Kinship
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother.[1] Such relatives may be known as cognates. Notes[edit]^ Wolters, O. W. (1999). History, Culture, and Region in Southeast Asian Perspectives. SEAP Publications. p. 17. ISBN 0-87727-725-7. This article relating to anthropology is a stub
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Bilateral Descent
Bilateral descent
Bilateral descent
is a system of family lineage in which the relatives on the mother's side and father's side are equally important for emotional ties or for transfer of property or wealth. It is a family arrangement where descent and inheritance are passed equally through both parents.[1] Families who use this system trace descent through both parents simultaneously and recognize multiple ancestors, but unlike with cognatic descent it is not used to form descent groups.[2] While bilateral descent is increasingly the norm in Western culture, traditionally it is only found among relatively few groups in West Africa, India, Australia, Indonesia, Melanesia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Polynesia
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Matrilateral
The term matrilateral describes kin (relatives) "on the mother's side". Social anthropologists have underlined that even where a social group demonstrates a strong emphasis on one or other line of inheritance (matrilineal or patrilineal), relatives who fall outside this unilineal grouping will not simply be ignored. So, a strongly patrilineal orientation will be complemented by matrilateral ties with the mother's kin. Likewise within a strongly matrilineal organisation, patrilateral ties will enter the reckoning of relationships as an important balancing factor. This complementarity often has a moral or emotional tone to it: Malinowski's classic studies of the matrilineal Trobriand islanders showed that matrilineal ties were associated with discipline and authority, while patrilateral ties were characterised by nurturance and kindness (at least in principle)
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House Society
In anthropology, a house society is a society where kinship and political relations are organized around membership in corporately-organized dwellings rather than around descent groups or lineages, as in the "House of Windsor". The concept was originally proposed by Claude Lévi-Strauss
Claude Lévi-Strauss
who called them "sociétés à maison".[1][2] The concept has been applied to understand the organization of societies from Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and the Moluccas
Moluccas
to North Africa and medieval Europe.[3][4] The House society
House society
is a hybrid, transitional form between kin-based and class-based social orders, and is not one of Lévi-Strauss' 'elementary structures' of kinship. Lévi-Strauss introduced the concept as an alternative to 'corporate kinship group' among the cognatic kinship groups of the Pacific region
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Ambilineality
Ambilineality is a system containing both unilineal descent groups – i.e. both patrilineal and matrilineal groups – in which one belongs to one's father's and/or mother's descent group (lineage). In traditional ambilineal cultures such as those listed below, the individual has the option of choosing their own lineage. Societies practicing ambilineal descent are especially common in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the Pacific. Polynesian cultures are generally ambilineal, including, for example, Samoans, Māori and Hawaiians. The indigenous peoples of Northwestern North America are also practitioners of ambilineality; and it also often occurs among the Yoruba people
Yoruba people
residing in West Africa, particularly those of royal and/or noble descent. See also[edit]Hawaiian kinship Unilineality Family Cultural anthropologyThis article relating to anthropology is a stub
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Ghost Marriage (Chinese)
In Chinese tradition, a ghost marriage (Chinese: 冥婚; pinyin: mínghūn; literally: "spirit marriage") is a marriage in which one or both parties are deceased.[1]:99 Other forms of ghost marriage are practiced worldwide, from Sudan, to France since 1959 (see Levirate marriage, Ghost marriage in Sudan and Posthumous marriage)
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Unilineality
Unilineality
Unilineality
is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's line, whereby one's descent is traced either exclusively through male ancestors (patriline), or exclusively through female ancestors (matriline). Both patrilineality and matrilineality are types of unilineal descent. The main types of the unilineal descent groups are lineages and clans. A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal descent
Unilineal descent
organization and deep Christianization[edit] Recent research[1] on the unilineal descent organization has studied variables that are usually regarded as the main causes of the decline of unilineal descent organization – viz. statehood, class stratification and commercialization – along with one not previously considered:[further explanation needed]
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