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Marlborough House
Coordinates : 51°30′18″N 0°8′9″W / 51.50500°N 0.13583°W / 51.50500; -0.13583 Marlborough House - south side MARLBOROUGH HOUSE is a Grade I listed mansion in St James\'s , City of Westminster north of The Mall and east of St James\'s Palace and is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat . It was built for Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough , the favourite and confidante of Queen Anne . For over a century it served as the London residence of the Dukes of Marlborough . CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Royal residence * 3 Commonwealth Secretariat * 4 Features * 5 Public opening times * 6 Transport * 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links CONSTRUCTION In its original form Marlborough House had just two storeys. This illustration of c.1750 shows the garden front. The Duchess wanted her new house to be "strong, plain and convenient and good". The architect Christopher Wren and his son of the same name designed a brick building with rusticated stone quoins (cornerstones) that was completed in 1711. The house was taken up by the Crown in 1817
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Marlborough House, Brighton
MARLBOROUGH HOUSE is a mansion in Brighton
Brighton
on the south coast of England
England
. It is a Grade I listed building . Located at 54 Old Steine, it was built as a red brick building c. 1765 for Samuel Shergold, a local hotelier. After being sold on by both Shergold and its second owner, the Duke of Marlborough , in 1786 it was bought by William Gerard Hamilton and altered to a Georgian design by Robert Adam . For many years it was owned by Brighton
Brighton
and Hove Council. It is currently undergoing major renovations
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Blenheim Palace
BLENHEIM PALACE (pronounced /ˈblɛnɪm/ _BLEN-im_ ) is a monumental country house situated in Woodstock , Oxfordshire, England. It is the principal residence of the Dukes of Marlborough , and the only non-royal non-episcopal country house in England to hold the title of palace . The palace, one of England's largest houses, was built between 1705 and circa 1722. Blenheim Palace
Palace
was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987. The building of the palace was originally intended to be a reward to John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , from a grateful nation for the duke's military triumphs against the French and Bavarians during the War of the Spanish Succession , culminating in the 1704 Battle of Blenheim . However, soon after its construction began, the palace became the subject of political infighting; this led to Marlborough's exile, the fall from power of his duchess, and lasting damage to the reputation of the architect Sir John Vanbrugh
John Vanbrugh
. Designed in the rare, and short-lived, English Baroque style, architectural appreciation of the palace is as divided today as it was in the 1720s. It is unique in its combined use as a family home, mausoleum and national monument
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Listed Building
A LISTED BUILDING or LISTED STRUCTURE, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England
England
; Cadw (The Historic Environment Service of the Welsh Government) in Wales
Wales
; Historic Scotland in Scotland
Scotland
; and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. The term has also been used in the Republic of Ireland , where buildings are surveyed for the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage in accordance with the country's obligations under the Granada Convention . However, the preferred term in Ireland is _protected structure_. A listed building may not be demolished, extended, or altered without special permission from the local planning authority, which typically consults the relevant central government agency, particularly for significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings. In England
England
and Wales, a national amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition
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St James's
ST JAMES\'S is a central district in the City of Westminster
City of Westminster
, London, forming part of the West End . In the 17th century the area developed as a residential location for the British aristocracy and around the 19th century was the focus of the development of gentlemen\'s clubs . Anciently part of the parish of St Martin in the Fields , much of it formed the parish of St James from 1685 to 1922. Since the Second World War
Second World War
the area has transitioned from residential to commercial use. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Toponymy * 2 Urban development * 3 Local government * 4 Governance * 5 Geography * 6 Economy * 7 Culture * 7.1 Clubland * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links HISTORYTOPONYMYThe St James name is derived from the dedication of a 12th-century leper hospital to Saint James the Less
James the Less
. The hospital site is now occupied by St James\'s Palace . The area became known as "Clubland" because of the historic presence of gentlemen\'s clubs
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City Of Westminster
35.2% White British 2.3% White Irish 0% White Gypsy or Irish Traveller 24.1% Other White 0.9% White & Black Caribbean 0.9% White & Black African 1.6% White the shopping areas around Oxford Street
Oxford Street
, Regent Street
Regent Street
, Piccadilly
Piccadilly
and Bond Street
Bond Street
; and the night time entertainment district of Soho
Soho
. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local authority is Westminster City Council
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The Mall, London
Coordinates : 51°30′15″N 0°8′7″W / 51.50417°N 0.13528°W / 51.50417; -0.13528 The Mall, looking southwest towards Buckingham Palace (2011) THE MALL (/ˈmæl/ ) is a road in the City of Westminster , central London , between Buckingham Palace at its western end and Trafalgar Square via Admiralty Arch to the east. Before it terminates at Whitehall it is met by Horse Guards Road and Spring Gardens where the Metropolitan Board of Works and London County Council were once based. It is closed to traffic on Sundays, public holidays and on ceremonial occasions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Sporting events * 3 Gallery * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe Mall began as a field for playing pall-mall . In the 17th and 18th centuries it was a fashionable promenade, bordered by trees. The Mall was envisioned as a ceremonial route in the early 20th century, matching the creation of similar ceremonial routes in other cities such as Berlin , Mexico City , Oslo , Paris , Saint Petersburg , Vienna and Washington, D.C. These routes were intended to be used for major national ceremonies. As part of the development – designed by Aston Webb – a new façade was constructed for Buckingham Palace, and the Victoria Memorial was erected
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St James's Palace
ST JAMES\'S PALACE is the most senior royal palace in the United Kingdom . Located in the City of Westminster , although no longer the principal residence of the monarch, it is the ceremonial meeting place of the Accession Council and the London residence of several members of the royal family . Built by King Henry VIII on the site of a leper hospital dedicated to Saint James the Less , the palace was secondary in importance to the Palace of Whitehall for most Tudor and Stuart monarchs. The palace increased in importance during the reigns of the early Georgian monarchy, but was displaced by Buckingham Palace in the late-18th and early-19th centuries. After decades of being used increasingly for only formal occasions, the move was formalised by Queen Victoria in 1837. Today the palace houses a number of official offices, societies and collections and all ambassadors and high commissioners to the United Kingdom are still accredited to the Court of St James\'s . Mainly built between 1531 and 1536 in red-brick, the palace's architecture is primarily Tudor in style. A fire in 1809 destroyed parts of the structure, including the monarch's private apartments, which were never replaced. Some 17th-century interiors survive, but most were remodelled in the 19th century
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Commonwealth Of Nations
The COMMONWEALTH OF NATIONS (formerly the BRITISH COMMONWEALTH), also known as simply THE COMMONWEALTH, is an intergovernmental organisation of 52 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire . The Commonwealth operates by intergovernmental consensus of the member states, organised through the Commonwealth Secretariat and non-governmental organisations , organised through the Commonwealth Foundation . The Commonwealth dates back to the mid-20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II who is the Head of the Commonwealth . The Queen is also the monarch of 16 members of the Commonwealth, known as _ Commonwealth realms _. The other Commonwealth members have different heads of state: 31 members are republics and five are monarchies with a different monarch. Member states have no legal obligation to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, culture and their shared values of democracy , free speech , human rights , and the rule of law . These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games
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Commonwealth Secretariat
The COMMONWEALTH SECRETARIAT is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
. It is responsible for facilitating co-operation between members; organising meetings, including the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings (CHOGM); assisting and advising on policy development; and providing assistance to countries in implementing the decisions and policies of the Commonwealth. The Secretariat has observer status in the United Nations General Assembly . It is located at Marlborough House
Marlborough House
in London, the United Kingdom, a former royal residence that was given by Queen Elizabeth II , Head of the Commonwealth . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Staff * 3 Headquarters * 4 See also * 5 Footnotes * 6 External links HISTORYThe Secretariat was established by Heads of Government in 1965, taking over many of the functions of the United Kingdom Government's Commonwealth Relations Office , as part of a major shake-up of the organisation of the Commonwealth. At the same time, the United Kingdom succeeded in advocating the creation of the Secretariat's sister organisation, the Commonwealth Foundation was founded to foster non-governmental relations and the promotion of the Commonwealth Family network of civil societies
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Sarah Churchill, Duchess Of Marlborough
SARAH CHURCHILL, DUCHESS OF MARLBOROUGH (née JENYNS, spelt JENNINGS in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Queen Anne of Great Britain
Great Britain
. Sarah's friendship and influence with Princess Anne was widely known, and leading public figures often turned their attentions to her in the hope that she would influence Anne to comply with requests. As a result, by the time Anne became queen, Sarah’s knowledge of government, and intimacy with the Queen, had made her a powerful friend and a dangerous enemy. Sarah enjoyed a "long and devoted" relationship with her husband of more than 40 years, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough
. She acted as Anne's agent after Anne's father, James II , was deposed during the Glorious Revolution ; and she promoted her interests during the rule of James's successors, William III and Mary II . When Anne came to the throne after William's death in 1702, the Duke of Marlborough, together with Sidney Godolphin , the first Earl of Godolphin , rose to head the government, partly owing to his wife's friendship with the Queen
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Favourite
A FAVOURITE or FAVORITE ( American English ) was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In medieval and Early Modern Europe , among other times and places, the term is used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. It was especially a phenomenon of the 16th and 17th centuries, when government had become too complex for many hereditary rulers with no great interest in or talent for it, and political institutions were still evolving. From 1600 to 1660 there were particular successions of all-powerful minister-favourites in much of Europe, especially in Spain, England, France and Sweden. The term is also sometimes employed by writers who want to avoid terms such as "royal mistress ", or "friend", "companion" or "lover" of either sex. Several favourites had sexual relations with the monarch (or the monarch's spouse), but the feelings of the monarch for the favourite covered the full gamut from a simple faith in the favourite's abilities to various degrees of emotional affection and dependence, sometimes even sexual infatuation. The term has an inbuilt element of disapproval and is defined by the _ Oxford English Dictionary _ as "One who stands unduly high in the favour of a prince", citing William Shakespeare : "Like favourites/ Made proud by Princes"
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Anne, Queen Of Great Britain
ANNE (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) became Queen of England , Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702. On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union , two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland , united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain
Great Britain
. She continued to reign as Queen of Great Britain and Ireland until her death. Anne was born in the reign of her uncle Charles II , who had no legitimate children. Her father, James , was thus heir presumptive to the throne. His suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne was raised as an Anglican . Three years after he succeeded Charles, James was deposed in the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688. Anne's Dutch Protestant brother-in-law and cousin William III of Orange became joint monarch with his wife, Mary II , Anne's elder sister. Although the sisters had been close, disagreements over Anne's finances, status and choice of acquaintances arose shortly after Mary's accession and they became estranged. William and Mary had no children. After Mary's death in 1694, William reigned alone until his own death in 1702, when Anne succeeded him. During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory
Tory
politicians , who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs
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Dukes Of Marlborough
DUKE OF MARLBOROUGH (locally /ˈmɔːlbrə/ ( listen ) MAWL-brə ) is a title in the Peerage of England . It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader, and indeed an unqualified reference to the Duke of Marlborough in a historical text will almost certainly refer to him. The name of the dukedom refers to Marlborough in Wiltshire
Wiltshire
. It is one of the few titles in the peerage which allows for suo jure female inheritance, and the only current dukedom to do so. The earldom of Marlborough was held by the family of Ley from its creation 1626 until its extinction with the death of the 4th earl in 1679. The title was recreated 10 years later for John Churchill (in 1689)
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Christopher Wren
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN PRS (/ˈrɛn/ ; 30 October 1632 – 8 March 1723 ) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history. He was accorded responsibility for rebuilding 52 churches in the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, including what is regarded as his masterpiece, St. Paul\'s Cathedral , on Ludgate Hill , completed in 1710. The principal creative responsibility for a number of the churches is now more commonly attributed to others in his office, especially Nicholas Hawksmoor . Other notable buildings by Wren include the Royal Naval College, Greenwich , and the south front of Hampton Court Palace . The Wren Building , the main building at the College of William and Mary , Virginia, is attributed to Wren. Educated in Latin and Aristotelian physics at the University of Oxford , Wren was a notable anatomist , astronomer , geometer , and mathematician-physicist , as well as an architect. He was a founder of the Royal Society (president 1