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Marathi Language
Marathi (English: /məˈrɑːti/;[8] मराठी Marāṭhī; Marathi: [məˈɾaʈʰi] ( listen)) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people
Marathi people
of Maharashtra, India. It is the official language and co-official language in the Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
states of Western India, respectively, and is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. There were 73 million speakers in 2007; Marathi ranks 19th in the list of most spoken languages in the world. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India, after Hindi, Bengali and Telugu, in that order.[9] Marathi has some of the oldest literature of all modern Indian languages, dating from about 900 AD.[10] The major dialects of Marathi are Standard Marathi and the Varhadi dialect.[11] Koli, Malvani Konkani has been heavily influenced by Marathi varieties
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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 14 January 1969[9] ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes.[8]SymbolsEmblem Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
Andal templeLanguageTamilSong"Invocation to Goddess Tamil"DanceBharathanattiyamAnimalNilgiri tahrBirdEmerald doveFlowerGloriosa lilyTreePalm treeSportKabaddi Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(Tamil pronunciation: [t̪amiɻ n̪aːᶑu] ( listen) literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai
Chennai
(formerly known as Madras)
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Manually Coded Language
Manually coded languages are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities, which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators, and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language
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Alveolar Lateral
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is ⟨l⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA
X-SAMPA
symbol is l. As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/ are common in Sino-Tibetan languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language is known to contrast such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ]. In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized in certain contexts, a sound often called "dark l"
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Affricates
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal). It is often difficult to decide if a stop and fricative form a single phoneme or a consonant pair.[1] English has two affricate phonemes, /t͡ʃ/ and /d͡ʒ/, often spelled ch and j, respectively.Contents1 Examples 2 Notation 3 Affricates vs
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Alveopalatal
In phonetics, alveolo-palatal (or alveopalatal) consonants, sometimes synonymous with pre-palatal consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex and palatal consonants but for "lack of space".[1] Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolars (palatalized palato-alveolars), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate,[2] whereas Esling describes them as advanced palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonants, articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge.[1] These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right)
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Apico-alveolar
An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue. It contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue, just behind the tip. It is not a very common distinction and is typically applied only to fricatives and affricates. Thus, many varieties of English have either apical or laminal pairs of [t]/[d]. However, some varieties of Arabic, including Hadhrami Arabic in Yemen, realize [t] as laminal but [d] as apical. Basque uses the distinction for alveolar fricatives, as does Serbo-Croatian. Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
uses it for postalveolar fricatives (the "alveolo-palatal" and "retroflex" series). Lillooet uses it as a secondary feature in contrasting velarized and non-velarized affricates
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Malvani Konkani
Malvani is a dialect of Konkani with significant Marathi influences and loanwords.[1] Though Malvani does not have a unique script, scripts of the other languages native to the regions its speakers inhabit are used. Devanagari
Devanagari
is used by most of the speakers. Malvani is very popular language used for newspaper articles and dramas. The Pure Malvani spoken by GSB[disambiguation needed] of Sindhudurga District. Malvani is still safe from 'language death', particularly due to locals of Maratha, Bhandari, Vaishya Vani, Kunbi, Daivajna (Sonar) caste, who tirelessly continue to preserve the pure version of this traditional dialect.Contents1 Difference from standard Marathi 2 Geographical distribution 3 Konkani in popular culture 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksDifference from standard Marathi[edit] All pronouns have a change from la to ka. Words in Marathi for "yes", "this", "that", "where", "here", "there", have different Malvani counterparts
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Official Language
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used within government (e.g., courts, parliament, administration).[1] Since "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law",[2] the term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government.[3] Worldwide, 178 countries have at least one official language, and 101 of these countries recognise more than one language. Many of the world's constitutions mention one or more official or national languages.[4][5] Some countries use the official language designation to empower indigenous groups by giving them access to the government in their native languages
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Linguasphere Observatory
The Linguasphere Observatory (or "Observatoire", based upon its original French and legal title: Observatoire Linguistique) is a transnational linguistic research network.Contents1 History 2 The Lingua sphere Register and Linguascale referential framework2.1 Examples 2.2 Languages of London 2.3 See also3 "Langues de la Liberté/Languages of Liberty" 4 "In the galaxy of languages, each person's voice is a star" 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] It was created in Quebec
Quebec
in 1983 and was subsequently established and registered in Normandy
Normandy
as a non-profit association under the honorary presidency of the late Léopold Sédar Senghor, a French-language poet and the first president of Senegal
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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Linguist List
The LINGUIST List is a major online resource for the academic field of linguistics. It was founded by Anthony Aristar in early 1990 at the University of Western Australia,[1] and is used as a reference by the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
in the United States.[2] Its main and oldest feature is the premoderated electronic mailing list, now with thousands of subscribers all over the world, where queries and their summarized results, discussions, journal table of contents, dissertation abstracts, calls for papers, book and conference announcements, software notices and other useful pieces of linguistic information are posted.Contents1 History 2 Services 3 Projects 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Between 1991 and 2013 the resource has been run by Anthony Aristar and Helen Aristar-Dry
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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ISO 639-1
 ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of October 2015. The registered codes cover the world's major languages. These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages
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List Of Language Regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors. Many world languages have one or more language academies
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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