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Maratha Empire
The MARATHA EMPIRE or the MARATHA CONFEDERACY was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa Bajirao II . The Marathas
Marathas
are credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. The Marathas
Marathas
are a Hindu
Hindu
warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra
Maharashtra
) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya
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Mohor
The MOHAR was the currency of Kingdom of Nepal
Kingdom of Nepal
and the adjoin parts of Kingdom of Videha
Videha
from the second half of the 17th century until 1932. Silver
Silver
and gold mohars were issued, each subdivided into 128 dams. Copper
Copper
dams were also issued, together with copper paisa worth 4 copper dams. The values of the copper, silver and gold coinages relative to one another were not fixed until 1903. In that year, the silver mohar became the standard currency, divided into 50 paisa. It was replaced in 1932 by the rupee , also called the mohru(Moru), at a rate of 2 mohars = 1 rupee
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Paisa
The PAISA (Nepali / Hindi
Hindi
: पैसा, Urdu : پیسہ‎‎), POISHA (Bengali : পয়সা) or BAISA (Omani : بيسة) is a monetary unit in several countries. In India
India
, Nepal
Nepal
and Pakistan
Pakistan
, the paisa currently equals  1⁄100 of a rupee . In Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, the poisha equals  1⁄100 of a Bangladeshi taka . In Oman, the baisa equals  1⁄1000 of an Omani rial . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Terminology * 4 Usage * 5 Gallery * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe word paisa is from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term padāṁśa, meaning 'quarter part', from pada "foot or quarter" and aṁśa "part". Another explanation is that the word derives from Portuguese ´pesa´ from which peso and diminutive peseta are derived
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world 's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1 , which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order, but are not actually given a rank number. The areas of such largely unrecognised states are in most cases also included in the areas of the more widely recognised states that claim the same territory; see the notes in the "Notes" column for each country for clarification
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Bangladesh
Coordinates : 23°48′N 90°18′E / 23.8°N 90.3°E / 23.8; 90.3 People's Republic
Republic
of Bangladesh * গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ (Bengali ) * Gaṇaprajātantrī Bāṃlādēśa Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Amar Sonar Bangla " (Bengali ) "My Golden Bengal"------------------------- MARCH: "
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Pakistan
Coordinates : 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic of Pakistan اسلامی جمہوریہ پاكستان ( Urdu
Urdu
) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān Flag Emblem MOTTO: Īmān, Ittiḥād, Naẓm ایمان، اتحاد، نظم (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" ANTHEM: Qaumī Tarānah قومی ترانہ "The National Anthem" Area controlled by Pakistan
Pakistan
shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled region shown in light green
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Gautama Buddha
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of Buddha , was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha and Kosala . Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood
Buddhahood
, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering
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Mahavira
MAHAVIRA (Mahāvīra), also known as VARDHAMāNA, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford maker) of Jainism . In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira
Mahavira
was born in early part of the 6th-century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar , India
India
. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening , abandoned all worldly possessions, and became an ascetic . For the next twelve-and-a-half years, Mahavira
Mahavira
practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana (omniscience). He preached for 30 years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th-century BC
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Parshvanatha
PARSHVANATHA (Pārśvanātha), also known as PARSHVA (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism . He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara
Tirthankara
who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure. His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC. Along with Mahavira
Mahavira
, Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
and Neminatha , Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
is one of the four Tirthankaras who attracts the most devotional worship among the Jains. His iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, and his worship often includes Dharanendra and Padmavati – the serpent god and goddess of Jainism
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Śramaṇa
VEDANTA * Advaita * Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Dvaita Vedanta
Vedanta
* Bhedabheda *
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Chalukya Dynasty
The CHALUKYA DYNASTY ( ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India
India
between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three related yet individual dynasties. The earliest dynasty, known as the "Badami Chalukyas", ruled from Vatapi (modern Badami
Badami
) from the middle of the 6th century. The Badami
Badami
Chalukyas
Chalukyas
began to assert their independence at the decline of the Kadamba kingdom of Banavasi
Banavasi
and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakeshin II . After the death of Pulakeshin II, the Eastern Chalukyas
Eastern Chalukyas
became an independent kingdom in the eastern Deccan . They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century
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Rupee
The RUPEE is the common name for the currencies of India
India
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Indonesia , Maldives
Maldives
, Mauritius , Nepal
Nepal
, Seychelles , Sri Lanka , and formerly those of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, Tibet
Tibet
, Burma and British East Africa , German East Africa and Trucial States . In the Maldives
Maldives
, the unit of currency is known as the rufiyah , which is a cognate of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
rupya. The Indian rupees (₹) and Pakistani rupees (₨) are subdivided into one hundred paise (singular paisa) or pice. The Mauritian and Sri Lankan rupees subdivide into 100 cents. The Nepalese rupee
Nepalese rupee
subdivides into one hundred paisas (both singular and double ) or four sukas or two mohors
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Gingee
GINGEE (Senji) is a panchayat town in Villupuram district (erstwhile South Arcot district) in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
. The nearest town with a railway station is Tindivanam , 28 km away and Thiruvannamalai , 39 km. Gingee
Gingee
is located between three hills covering a perimeter of 3 km. Gingee Fort Hill Gingee
Gingee
is famous for its Gingee Fort , a popular tourist attraction. The Kon dynasty laid the foundations for the Gingee Fort in 1190 AD. The fort was later built by the Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
in the 13th century. In 1638, Gingee
Gingee
came under the control of Bijapur Sultanate from Vijayanagar . In 1677, it was under the control of Maratha
Maratha
king Shivaji
Shivaji

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Tamil Nadu
^# Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana
is the national anthem, while "Invocation to Tamil Mother" is the state song/anthem. ^† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1950 and renamed as Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
on 14 January 1969 ^^ Tamil is the official language of the state. English is declared as an additional official language for communication purposes
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, usually a family called the dynasty , embodies the country's national identity and one of its members, called the monarch , exercises a role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally and in most cases, the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication, but there are also elective monarchies where the monarch is elected. Each of these has variations: in some elected monarchies only those of certain pedigrees are, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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