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Maratha Empire
The Maratha
Maratha
Empire
Empire
or the Maratha
Maratha
Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
in the 18th century. The empire formally existed from 1674 with the coronation of Chhatrapati Shivaji
Shivaji
and ended in 1818 with the defeat of Peshwa
Peshwa
Bajirao
Bajirao
II. The Marathas are credited to a large extent for ending Mughal rule in India.[3][note 1][4][5][6] The Marathas were a Marathi warrior group from the western Deccan Plateau (present day Maharashtra) that rose to prominence by establishing a Hindavi Swarajya
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Śramaṇa
VedantaAdvaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda ShuddhadvaitaHeterodoxCharvaka Ājīvika Buddhism JainismOther schoolsVaishnava Smarta Shakta ĪśvaraShaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata SiddhantaTantraTeachers (Acharyas)NyayaAkṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha SiromaniMīmāṃsāJaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa PrabhākaraAdvaita VedantaGaudapada Adi Shankara Vācaspati Miśra Vidyaranya Sadananda Madhusūdana Sarasvatī Vijnanabhiksu Ramakrishna Vivekananda Ramana Maharshi Siddharudha Chinmayananda NisargadattaVishishtadvaitaNammalvar Alvars Yamunacharya Ramanuja Vedanta
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Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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Lahuradewa
Lahuradewa (Lat. 26°46' N; Long. 82°57' E) is located in Sant Kabir Nagar District, in Sarayupar (Trans-Sarayu) region of the Upper Gangetic Plain in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
state of India. The Sarayupar Plain is bounded by the Sarayu
Sarayu
River in the west and south, Nepalese Terai
Terai
in the north and the Gandak
Gandak
River in the east. The site is noted to have been occupied as early as 9,000 BCE,[1] and by 7,000 BCE it provides the oldest evidence of ceramics in South Asia.[2][3] Excavations reported earliest archaeological sites in South Asia
South Asia
for cultivation of rice, with Lahuradewa Period IA giving samples that were dated by AMS radiocarbon to the 7th millennium BCE.[4] References[edit]^ Colin Renfrew; Paul Bahn. The Cambridge World Prehistory. Cambridge University Press
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Jhusi
Jhusi
Jhusi
or Jhunsi is a town and a nagar panchayat in Allahabad
Allahabad
district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was formerly called Andhernagri and Pratishthan Pur or Puri. The place is also noted for being one of the Neolithic
Neolithic
site, that provides one of the earliest evidence of farming in South Asia.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 Demographics 3 History3.1 Prayag's past buried at Jhusi4 Schools, colleges and institutes 5 References 6 External linksGeography[edit] Jhusi
Jhusi
has an average elevation of 76 metres (249 ft)
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Bhirrana
Bhirrana, also Bhirdana and Birhana, is a small village located in Fatehabad District, in the Indian state of Haryana.[1][2]Contents1 Location 2 Excavations 3 Dating 4 Cultures 5 Dancing girl graffiti 6 Other findings 7 See also 8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External linksLocation[edit] Bhirrana
Bhirrana
siteLocation Haryana, IndiaCoordinates 29°33′15″N 75°33′55″E / 29.55417°N 75.56528°E / 29.55417; 75.56528Length 190 m (620 ft)Width 240 m (790 ft)HistoryFounded Approximately 7570 BCEAbandoned Approximately 2600 BCEPeriods Hakra Wares to Mature HarappanCultures Indus Valley CivilizationSite notesExcavation dates 2003-04, 2004–05, 2005-06The site is situated about 220 km to the northwest of New Delhi on the New Delhi-Fazilka national highway and about 14 km northeast of the district headquarters on the Bhuna road in the Fatehabad district
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Soanian
The Soanian
Soanian
is an archaeological culture of the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
in the Siwalik region of the Indian subcontinent.[1] Contemporary to the Acheulean, it is named after the Soan Valley in Pakistan. Soanian sites are found along the Sivalik region in present-day India, Nepal and Pakistan.[2]Contents1 Findings 2 Spread across Shivalik Hills region 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksFindings[edit]ChauntraKhasala KalanSivalik HillsSoan RiverMap of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
showing important sites of the Soanian culture.The term "Soan Culture" was first used by Hellmut De Terra in 1936,[3] but D. N
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Madrasian Culture
The Madrasian culture is a prehistoric archaeological culture of India, dated to the Lower Paleolithic, the earliest subdivision of the Stone Age.[1][2] It belongs to the Acheulian industry, and some scholars consider the distinction between the Madrasian and the broader, regional Acheulian tradition defunct.[3][4] The culture is characterized by bifacial handaxes and cleavers,[5] but also includes flake tools, microliths and other chopping tools. Most were made from quartzite.[6] The Madrasian was named for its type site of Attirampakkam, near to the city of Madras (now known as Chennai), discovered by British archaeologist and geologist Robert Bruce Foote
Robert Bruce Foote
in 1863.[2][3] The oldest tools at Attirampakkam have been dated to 1.5 million years ago using cosmic-ray exposure dating.[7] See also[edit]South Asian Stone Age Soanian
Soanian
cultureReferences[edit]^ Armand, J (1985)
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Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(Pārśvanātha), also known as Parshva (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism.[6] He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara
Tirthankara
who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure.[7][8] His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC
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Pakistan
Coordinates: 30°N 70°E / 30°N 70°E / 30; 70 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاكِستان‬ (Urdu) Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān[1]FlagEmblemMotto: Īmān, Ittihād, Nazam ایمان، اتحاد، نظم‬ (Urdu) "Faith, Unity, Discipline" [2]Anthem: Qaumī Tarānah قَومی ترانہ‬ "The National Anthem"[3]Area controlled by Pakistan
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Mohor
The mohar was the currency of Kingdom of Nepal and the adjoin parts of Kingdom of Videha from the second half of the 17th century until 1932. Silver and gold mohars were issued, each subdivided into 128 dams. Copper dams were also issued, together with copper paisa worth 4 copper dams. The values of the copper, silver and gold coinages relative to one another were not fixed until 1903. In that year, the silver mohar became the standard currency, divided into 50 paisa
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Paisa
The paisa (Nepali/Hindi: पैसा, Urdu: پیسہ‬‎), poisha (Bengali: পয়সা) or baisa (Omani: بيسة) is a monetary unit in several countries. In India, Nepal
Nepal
and Pakistan, the paisa currently equals ​1⁄100 of a rupee. In Bangladesh, the poisha equals ​1⁄100 of a Bangladeshi taka. In Oman, the baisa equals ​1⁄1000 of an Omani rial.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Terminology 4 Usage 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] The word paisa is from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
term padāṁśa, meaning 'quarter part', from pada "foot or quarter" and aṁśa "part".[1][2] Another explanation is that the word derives from Portuguese ´pesa´ from which peso and diminutive peseta are derived. The pesa was also in use in colonial Kenya
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population. It includes sovereign states, inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1. For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list, include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO standard 3166-1, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories
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Mahavira
Mahavira
Mahavira
(/məˌhɑːˈvɪərə/; IAST: Bhagavān Mahāvīra), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford-maker) of Jainism. In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira
Mahavira
was born in the early part of the 6th century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar, India. At the age of thirty, abandoning all worldly possessions, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening and became an ascetic. For the next twelve and a half years, Mahavira
Mahavira
practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience). He preached for thirty years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th century BC
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