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Manure
MANURE is organic matter , mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure , which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture . Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients , such as nitrogen , that are utilised by bacteria , fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web . In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers , but this usage is now very rare. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Animal manure * 1.1.1 Human manure * 1.2 Compost
Compost
* 1.3 Green manure * 2 Uses of manure * 2.1 Animal manure * 3 Issues * 3.1 Livestock antibiotics * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TYPESThere are three main classes of manures used in soil management: ANIMAL MANURE Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water. This is common in rural Hainan
Hainan
Province, China
China
. Most animal manure consists of feces . Common forms of animal manure include farmyard manure (FYM) or farm slurry (liquid manure). FYM also contains plant material (often straw), which has been used as bedding for animals and has absorbed the feces and urine
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Feces
FECES or FAECES (British and Latin) are the solid or semisolid metabolic waste from an animal 's digestive tract , discharged through the anus or cloaca during a process called defecation . Urine and feces together are called excreta . Collected feces has various uses, namely as fertilizer or soil conditioner in agriculture, as a fuel source , construction material , or for medicinal purposes (fecal transplants or fecal bacteriotherapy , in the case of human feces ). CONTENTS * 1 Ecology * 2 Characteristics * 3 Human feces * 4 Pets * 5 Uses of animal feces * 5.1 Fertilizer * 5.2 Energy source * 5.3 Coprolites and paleofeces * 5.4 Other uses * 6 Terminology * 6.1 Etymology * 6.2 Synonyms * 7 Society and culture * 7.1 Feelings of disgust * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ECOLOGY The cassowary disperses plant seeds via its feces Earthworm feces aid in provision of minerals and plant nutrients in an accessible form After an animal has digested eaten material, the remains of that material are discharged from its body as waste. Although it is lower in energy than the food from which it is derived, feces may retain a large amount of energy, often 50% of that of the original food. This means that of all food eaten, a significant amount of energy remains for the decomposers of ecosystems
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Metabolic Waste
METABOLIC WASTES or EXCRETES are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration ), which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic ), and must therefore be excreted . This includes nitrogen compounds, water , CO2 , phosphates , sulfates , etc. Animals treat these compounds as excretes. Plants have chemical "machinery" which transforms some of them (primarily the nitrogen compounds) into useful substances, and it has been shown by Brian J. Ford that abscissa leaves also carry wastes away from the parent plant. In this way, Ford argues that the shed leaf acts as an _excretory_ (an organ carrying away excretory products). All the metabolic wastes are excreted in a form of water solutes through the excretory organs (nephridia , Malpighian tubules , kidneys ), with the exception of CO2, which is excreted together with the water vapor throughout the lungs . The elimination of these compounds enables the chemical homeostasis of the organism. CONTENTS* 1 Nitrogen wastes * 1.1 Ammonotelism * 1.2 Ureotelism * 1.3 Uricotelism * 2 Water and gases * 3 Solids * 4 See also * 5 References NITROGEN WASTES Further information: Urea § Physiology , and Urea cycle The nitrogen compounds through which excess nitrogen is eliminated from organisms are called NITROGENOUS WASTES (/naɪˈtrɒdʒᵻnəs/ ) or NITROGEN WASTES
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Stable
A STABLE is a building in which livestock , especially horses , are kept. It most commonly means a building that is divided into separate stalls for individual animals. There are many different types of stables in use today; the American-style barn , for instance, is a large barn with a door at each end and individual stalls inside or free-standing stables with top and bottom-opening doors. The term "stable" is also used to describe a group of animals kept by one owner, regardless of housing or location. The exterior design of a stable can vary widely, based on climate, building materials, historical period and cultural styles of architecture. A wide range of building materials can be used, including masonry (bricks or stone), wood and steel. Stables can range widely in size, from a small building housing one or two animals to facilities at agricultural shows or race tracks that can house hundreds of animals. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Horses * 3 Other uses * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY The Devil\'s Farmhouse is an 18th-century stable built by limestone by the Order of St. John in Malta . The building is a rare example of the period but it is in a dilapidated state. It is however a grade 1 national monument. The stable is typically historically the second-oldest building type on the farm
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Organic Matter
ORGANIC MATTER, ORGANIC MATERIAL, or NATURAL ORGANIC MATTER (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. It is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment . Organic molecules can also be made by chemical reactions that don't involve life. Basic structures are created from cellulose , tannin , cutin , and lignin , along with other various proteins , lipids , and carbohydrates . Organic matter is very important in the movement of nutrients in the environment and plays a role in water retention on the surface of the planet. CONTENTS * 1 Formation * 2 Natural ecosystem functions * 3 Source cycle * 3.1 Importance of the cycle * 4 Soil
Soil
organic matter * 4.1 Factors controlling rates of decomposition * 4.2 Priming effect * 5 Decomposition * 6 Organic chemistry * 7 Organic matter in water (Aquatic) * 7.1 Detection of aquatic organic matter * 7.2 Water
Water
purification * 7.3 Potential solutions * 8 Vitalism * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography FORMATION Living organisms
Living organisms
are composed of organic compounds
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Green Manure
In agriculture , GREEN MANURE is created by leaving uprooted or sown crop parts to wither on a field so that they serve as a mulch and soil amendment . The plants used for green manure are often cover crops grown primarily for this purpose. Typically, they are ploughed under and incorporated into the soil while green or shortly after flowering. Green manure is commonly associated with organic farming and can play an important role in sustainable annual cropping systems. CONTENTS * 1 Functions * 2 Nutrient creation * 3 Green manure crops * 4 History * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links FUNCTIONSGreen manures usually perform multiple functions that include soil improvement and soil protection: * Leguminous green manures such as clover and vetch contain nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria in root nodules that fix atmospheric nitrogen in a form that plants can use. This performs the vital function of fertilization. If desired, animal manures may also be added. Depending on the species of cover crop grown, the amount of nitrogen released into the soil lies between 40 and 200 pounds per acre. With green manure use, the amount of nitrogen that is available to the succeeding crop is usually in the range of 40-60% of the total amount of nitrogen that is contained within the green manure crop
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Organic Fertilizer
ORGANIC FERTILIZERS are fertilizers derived from animal matter , animal excreta (manure ), human excreta , and vegetable matter . (e.g. compost and crop residues ). Naturally occurring organic fertilizers include animal wastes from meat processing, peat , manure , slurry , and guano . In contrast, the majority of fertilizers used in commercial farming are extracted from minerals (e.g., phosphate rock ) or produced industrially (e.g., ammonia ). Organic agriculture, a system of farming, allows for certain fertilizers and amendments and disallows others; that is also distinct from this topic. Compost
Compost
bin for small-scale production of organic fertilizer A large commercial compost operation CONTENTS* 1 Examples and sources * 1.1 Mineral * 1.2 Animal sources * 1.3 Plant * 1.4 Treated sewage sludge * 1.5 Urine * 1.6 Others * 2 See also * 3 References EXAMPLES AND SOURCESThe main organic fertilizers are, peat , animal wastes (often from slaughter houses), plant wastes from agriculture, and treated sewage sludge. MINERALBy some definitions, minerals are distinctly separate from organic materials. However, certain organic fertilizers and amendments are mined, specifically guano and peat, and other mined minerals are fossil products of animal activity, such as greensand (anaerobic marine deposits), some limestones (fossil shell deposits) and some rock phosphates, (fossil guano)
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Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Modern agronomy , plant breeding , agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers , and technological developments have in many cases sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and the health effects of the antibiotics , growth hormones , and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production . Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries
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Soil
SOIL is a mixture of minerals , organic matter , gases, liquids, and countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body called the pedosphere which has four important functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage , supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth\'s atmosphere ; it is a habitat for organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil. Soil has been called the _Skin of the Earth_ as it interfaces with the lithosphere , the hydrosphere , the atmosphere , and the biosphere . The term _pedolith_, used commonly to refer to the soil, literally translates _ground stone_. Soil consists of a solid phase of minerals and organic matter (the soil matrix), as well as a porous phase that holds gases (the soil atmosphere) and water (the soil solution). Accordingly, soils are often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases. Soil is a product of the influence of climate , relief (elevation, orientation, and slope of terrain), organisms, and its parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. Soil continually undergoes development by way of numerous physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion . Given its complexity and strong internal connectedness soil has been considered as an ecosystem by soil ecologists
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Nitrogen
NITROGEN is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name _nitrogen_ was suggested by Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates ; this name derives from the Greek roots νἰτρον "nitre " and -γεννᾶν "to form". Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name _AZOTE_, from the Greek άζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas ; his name is instead used in many languages, such as French , Russian , and Turkish , and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine , azides and azo compounds . Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. The name comes from the Greek πνίγειν "to choke", directly referencing nitrogen's asphyxiating properties. It is a common element in the universe , estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way
Milky Way
and the Solar System
Solar System

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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms . Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals . Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats . Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , and the deep portions of Earth\'s crust . Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals
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Fungus
Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota ) Ascomycota Pezizomycotina Saccharomycotina Taphrinomycotina Basidiomycota Agaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina Ustilaginomycotina Subphyla _incertae sedis _ Entomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina A FUNGUS (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/ ; plural : FUNGI or FUNGUSES ) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms . These organisms are classified as a kingdom , FUNGI, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals . A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls . Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs ; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise . Growth is their means of mobility, except for spores (a few of which are flagellated), which may travel through the air or water. Fungi are the principal decomposers in ecological systems
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Soil Food Web
The SOIL FOOD WEB is the community of organisms living all or part of their lives in the soil. It describes a complex living system in the soil and how it interacts with the environment, plants, and animals. Food webs describe the transfer of energy between species in an ecosystem . While a food chain examines one, linear, energy pathway through an ecosystem, a food web is more complex and illustrates all of the potential pathways. Much of this transferred energy comes from the sun. Plants use the sun’s energy to convert inorganic compounds into energy-rich, organic compounds , turning carbon dioxide and minerals into plant material by photosynthesis . Plant flowers exude energy-rich nectar above ground and plant roots exude acids, sugars, and ectoenzymes into the rhizosphere , adjusting the pH and feeding the food web underground. Plants are called autotrophs because they make their own energy; they are also called producers because they produce energy available for other organisms to eat. Heterotrophs are consumers that cannot make their own food. In order to obtain energy they eat plants or other heterotrophs
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Fertilizer
A FERTILIZER ( American English ) or FERTILISER ( British English ; see spelling differences ) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials ) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants
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Hainan
HAINAN is the smallest and southernmost province of the People\'s Republic of China , consisting of various islands in the South China Sea . HAINAN ISLAND, separated from Guangdong 's Leizhou Peninsula by the Qiongzhou Strait , is the largest island under PRC control (Taiwan , which is slightly larger, is also claimed but not controlled by the PRC) and makes up the majority of the province. The province has an area of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq mi), with Hainan Island making up 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi) (97%) and the rest divided among two hundred islands scattered across three archipelagos. It was administered as part of Guangdong until 1988, when it became a separate province; around the same time, it was made the largest Special Economic Zone established by Deng Xiaoping as part of the Opening Up of China . There are a total of ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan Province. Haikou on the northern coast of Hainan Island is the capital while Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other major cities are Wenchang , Qionghai , Wanning , Wuzhishan , Dongfang , and Danzhou
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of over 1.381 billion . Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3.7 million square miles), it is the world's second-largest state by land area and third- or fourth-largest by total area . Governed by the Communist Party of China , it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin , Shanghai , and Chongqing ) and the Special Administrative Regions