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Manure
MANURE is organic matter , mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure , which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture . Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients , such as nitrogen , that are utilised by bacteria , fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web . In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers , but this usage is now very rare. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Animal manure * 1.1.1 Human manure * 1.2 Compost * 1.3 Green manure * 2 Uses of manure * 2.1 Animal manure * 3 Issues * 3.1 Livestock antibiotics * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links TYPESThere are three main classes of manures used in soil management: ANIMAL MANURE Cement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water
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Feather
FEATHERS are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage , on birds . They are considered the most complex integumentary structures found in vertebrates and a premier example of a complex evolutionary novelty. They are among the characteristics that distinguish the extant birds from other living groups. Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin. They aid in flight, thermal insulation, and waterproofing. In addition, coloration helps in communication and protection . PLUMOLOGY (or PLUMAGE SCIENCE) is the name for the science that is associated with the study of feathers
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Blood
BLOOD is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates , it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma . Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins , glucose , mineral ions , hormones , carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Bone
A BONE is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton . Bones support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells , store minerals , provide structure and support for the body, and enable mobility . Bones come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have a complex internal and external structure. They are lightweight yet strong and hard, and serve multiple functions . Bone
Bone
tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue , a type of dense connective tissue . It has a honeycomb-like matrix internally, which helps to give the bone rigidity. Bone
Bone
tissue is made up of different types of bone cells . Osteoblasts and osteocytes are involved in the formation and mineralization of bone; osteoclasts are involved in the resorption of bone tissue. Modified (flattened) osteoblasts become the lining cells that form a protective layer on the bone surface
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Meat And Bone Meal
MEAT AND BONE MEAL (MBM) is a product of the rendering industry. It is typically about 48–52% protein , 33–35% ash , 8–12% fat , and 4–7% moisture . It is primarily used in the formulation of animal feed to improve the amino acid profile of the feed. Feeding of MBM to cattle is thought to have been responsible for the spread of BSE (mad cow disease). In most parts of the world, MBM is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals. However, MBM is still used to feed monogastric animals. It is widely used in the United States as a low-cost meat in dog food and cat food . In Europe
Europe
, some MBM is used as ingredients in petfood but the vast majority is now used as a fossil-fuel replacement for renewable energy generation, as a fuel in cement kilns, landfilling or incineration
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Hair
HAIR is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis , or skin. Hair
Hair
is one of the defining characteristics of mammals . The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin , is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair . Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth , hair types and hair care , but hair is also an important biomaterial primarily composed of protein, notably alpha-keratin . Attitudes towards different hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal , vary widely across different cultures and historical periods, but it is often used to indicate a person's personal beliefs or social position, such as their age, sex, or religion
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Shoddy
The MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES is one of the oldest of human technologies . To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. (Both fibre and fiber are used in this article. ) The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving , which turns yarn into cloth . The machine used for weaving is the loom . For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing . For more information of the various steps, see textile manufacturing . * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z * External links A ABSORBENCY A measure of how much amount of water a fabric can absorb . ACETATE Acetate is a synthetic fiber . ACRYLIC Acrylic fiber
Acrylic fiber
is a synthetic polymer fiber that contains at least 85% acrylonitrile
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Rabbit
RABBITS are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha , found in several parts of the world. There are eight different genera in the family classified as rabbits, including the European rabbit
European rabbit
(Oryctolagus cuniculus), cottontail rabbits (genus Sylvilagus; 13 species ), and the Amami rabbit ( Pentalagus furnessi, an endangered species on Amami Ōshima , Japan
Japan
). There are many other species of rabbit, and these, along with pikas and hares , make up the order Lagomorpha. The male is called a buck and the female is a doe; a young rabbit is a kitten or kit
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Bat
BATS are mammals of the order CHIROPTERA (/kaɪˈrɒptərə/ ; from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: χείρ – cheir, "hand" and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: πτερόν – pteron, "wing" ) whose forelimbs form webbed wings , making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight . By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels , gliding possums , and colugos , can only glide for short distances. Bats are less efficient at flying than birds , but are more manoeuvrable, using their very long spread-out digits which are covered with a thin membrane or patagium . Bats are the second largest order of mammals (after the rodents ), representing about 20% of all classified mammal species worldwide, with about 1,240 bat species divided into two suborders: the less specialized and largely fruit-eating megabats , or flying foxes, and the highly specialized and echolocating microbats
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Wool
WOOL is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids . Wool
Wool
has several qualities that distinguish it from hair or fur: it is crimped and elastic . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Processing * 2.1 Shearing * 2.2 Scouring * 3 Quality * 4 Fineness and yield * 5 History * 6 Production * 7 Marketing * 7.1 Australia
Australia
* 7.2 Other countries * 8 Yarn
Yarn
* 9 Uses * 10 Carbon footprint * 11 Events * 12 See also * 12.1 Production * 12.2 Processing * 12.3 Refined products * 12.4 Organizations * 12.5 Miscellaneous wool * 13 References * 14 External links CHARACTERISTICS Champion hogget fleece, Walcha Show Wool
Wool
is produced by follicles which are small cells located in the skin
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Sewage Sludge
SEWAGE SLUDGE refers to the residual, semi-solid material that is produced as a by-product during sewage treatment of industrial or municipal wastewater. The term septage is also referring to sludge from simple wastewater treatment but is connected to simple on-site sanitation systems, such as septic tanks . When fresh sewage or wastewater enters a primary settling tank , approximately 50% of the suspended solid matter will settle out in an hour and a half. This collection of solids is known as raw sludge or primary solids and is said to be "fresh" before anaerobic processes become active. The sludge will become putrescent in a short time once anaerobic bacteria take over, and must be removed from the sedimentation tank before this happens. This is accomplished in one of two ways
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Plow
A PLOUGH (UK ) or PLOW (US ; both /ˈplaʊ/ ) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as horses or cattle, but in modern times are drawn by tractors . A plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the earth. It has been a basic instrument for most of recorded history , although written references to the plough do not appear in English until c. 1100 at which point it is referenced frequently. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history. The primary purpose of ploughing is to turn over the upper layer of the soil, bringing fresh nutrients to the surface, while burying weeds and the remains of previous crops and allowing them to break down. As the plough is drawn through the soil it creates long trenches of fertile soil called furrows
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Ruminant
RUMINANTS are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions. The process typically requires the fermented ingesta (known as cud ) to be regurgitated and chewed again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called RUMINATION. The word "ruminant" comes from the Latin ruminare, which means "to chew over again". The roughly 150 species of ruminants includes both domestic and wild species. Ruminating mammals include cattle , goats , sheep , giraffes , yaks , deer , antelope , and some macropods . It has also been suggested that notoungulates also relied on rumination, as opposed to other antlantogenates that relied on the more typical hindgut fermentation , though this is not entirely certain
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Spent Grain
BREWING is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley ) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast . It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer , or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim . Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies. The basic ingredients of beer are water and a fermentable starch source such as malted barley . Most beer is fermented with a brewer\'s yeast and flavoured with hops . Less widely used starch sources include millet , sorghum and cassava
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Brewing
BREWING is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley ) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast . It may be done in a brewery by a commercial brewer, at home by a homebrewer , or by a variety of traditional methods such as communally by the indigenous peoples in Brazil when making cauim . Brewing
Brewing
has taken place since around the 6th millennium BC, and archaeological evidence suggests that emerging civilizations including ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia brewed beer. Since the nineteenth century the brewing industry has been part of most western economies. The basic ingredients of beer are water and a fermentable starch source such as malted barley . Most beer is fermented with a brewer\'s yeast and flavoured with hops . Less widely used starch sources include millet , sorghum and cassava
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Beer
BEER is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drink ; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea . The production of beer is called brewing , which involves the fermentation of sugars , mainly derived from cereal grain starches —most commonly from malted barley , although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops , which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative , though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included. The fermentation process causes a natural carbonation effect, although this is often removed during processing, and replaced with forced carbonation
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