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Manometer
Pressure
Pressure
measurement is the analysis of an applied force by a fluid (liquid or gas) on a surface. Pressure
Pressure
is typically measured in units of force per unit of surface area. Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and vacuum. Instruments used to measure and display pressure in an integral unit are called pressure gauges or vacuum gauges. A manometer is a good example as it uses a column of liquid to both measure and indicate pressure
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Force
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.[1] A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e., to accelerate. Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton's second law
Newton's second law
states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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NIST
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology
(NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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Torr
The torr (symbol: Torr) is a unit of pressure based on an absolute scale, now defined as exactly 1/760 of a standard atmosphere (101.325 kPa). Thus one torr is exactly 7005101325000000000♠101325/760 pascals (≈ 133.32 Pa). Historically, one torr was intended to be the same as one "millimeter of mercury". However, subsequent redefinitions of the two units made them slightly different (by less than 6993150000000000000♠0.000015%)
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Pounds Per Square Inch
The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2;[1] abbreviation: psi) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch. In SI units, 1 psi is approximately equal to 6895 N/m2. Pounds per square inch
Pounds per square inch
absolute (psia) is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is pounds per square inch gauge (psig), indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure
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Newton (unit)
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion. See below for the conversion factors.Contents1 Definition 2 Examples 3 Commonly seen as kilonewtons 4 Conversion factors 5 See also 6 Notes and referencesDefinition[edit] One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in direction of the applied force. In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared
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Kilopascal
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer
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Dyne
The dyne (symbol dyn, from Greek δύναμις, dynamis, meaning power, force) is a unit of force specified in the centimetre–gram–second system of units (CGS), a predecessor of the modern SI. One dyne is equal to 10 micronewtons, 10−5 N or to 10 nsn (nanosthenes) in the old metre–tonne–second system of units. Equivalently, the dyne is defined as "the force required to accelerate a mass of one gram at a rate of one centimetre per second squared":1 dyn = 1 g⋅cm/s2 = 10−5 kg⋅m/s2 = 10−5 N1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s2 = 105 g⋅cm/s2 = 105 dynThe dyne per centimetre is a unit traditionally used to measure surface tension
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Kilogram-force
The kilogram-force (kgf or kgF), or kilopond (kp, from Latin pondus meaning weight), is a gravitational metric unit of force. It is equal to the magnitude of the force exerted by one kilogram of mass in a 7000980665000000000♠9.80665 m/s2 gravitational field (standard gravity, a conventional value approximating the average magnitude of gravity on Earth).[1] Therefore, one kilogram-force is by definition equal to 7000980665000000000♠9.80665 N.[2][3] Similarly, a gram-force is 6997980665000000000♠9.80665 mN, and a milligram-force is 6994980664999999999♠9.80665 μN
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Millimeter Of Mercury
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely 7002133322387415000♠133.322387415 pascals.[1] It is denoted by the symbol mmHg[2] or mm Hg.[3] Although not an SI unit, the millimeter of mercury is still routinely used in medicine, meteorology, aviation, and many other scientific fields. One millimeter of mercury is approximately 1 Torr, which is 1/760 of standard atmospheric pressure (7005101325000000000♠101325/760 = 7002133322368421053♠133.322368421053 pascals)
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Pound-force
The pound-force (symbol: lbf[1], sometimes lbf,[2]) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.[3] Pound force should not be confused with foot-pounds or pound-feet, which are units of torque, and may be written as "lbf⋅ft". They should not be confused with pound-mass (symbol: lb), often simply called pounds, which is a unit of mass.Contents1 Definitions1.1 Product of avoirdupois pound and standard gravity2 Conversion to other units 3 Foot–pound–second (FPS) systems of units 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesDefinitions[edit] The pound-force is equal to the gravitational force exerted on a mass of one avoirdupois pound on the surface of Earth
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Square Metre
The square metre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or square meter (American spelling) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of area, with symbol m2 (33A1 in Unicode[1]). It is the area of a square whose sides measure exactly one metre. The square metre is derived from the SI base unit
SI base unit
of the metre, which itself is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in absolute vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. Adding and subtracting SI prefixes creates multiples and submultiples; however, as the unit is squared, the order of magnitude difference between units doubles from their comparable linear units
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MmHg
A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely 7002133322387415000♠133.322387415 pascals.[1] It is denoted by the symbol mmHg[2] or mm Hg.[3] Although not an SI unit, the millimeter of mercury is still routinely used in medicine, meteorology, aviation, and many other scientific fields. One millimeter of mercury is approximately 1 Torr, which is 1/760 of standard atmospheric pressure (7005101325000000000♠101325/760 = 7002133322368421053♠133.322368421053 pascals)
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Fluid
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas, and to some extent, plastic solids. Fluids are substances that have zero shear modulus, or, in simpler terms, a fluid is a substance which cannot resist any shear force applied to it. Although the term "fluid" includes both the liquid and gas phases, in common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required incompressible function if there is gas in it. This colloquial usage of the term is also common in medicine and in nutrition ("take plenty of fluids"). Liquids form a free surface (that is, a surface not created by the container) while gases do not. The distinction between solids and fluid is not entirely obvious
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InHg
Inch of mercury
Inch of mercury
(inHg and ″Hg) is a unit of measurement for pressure
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Gravity Of Earth
The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by g, refers to the acceleration that is imparted to objects due to the distribution of mass within Earth. In SI units this acceleration is measured in metres per second squared (in symbols, m/s2 or m·s−2) or equivalently in newtons per kilogram (N/kg or N·kg−1). Near Earth's surface, gravitational acceleration is approximately 9.8 m/s2, which means that, ignoring the effects of air resistance, the speed of an object falling freely will increase by about 9.8 metres per second every second
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