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Manifest Destiny
In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States
United States
that its settlers were destined to expand across North America. There are three basic themes to manifest destiny:The special virtues of the American people and their institutions The mission of the United States
United States
to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential duty[3]Historian Frederick Merk says this concept was born out of "a sense of mission to redeem the Old World
Old World
by high example ... generated by the potentialities of a new earth for building a new heaven".[4] Historians have emphasized that "manifest destiny" was a contested concept—pre-civil war Democrats endorsed the idea but many prominent Americans (such as Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and most Whigs) rejected it
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Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
(or Pain;[1] February 9, 1737 [O.S. January 29, 1736][Note 1] – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary. One of the Founding Fathers of the United States, he authored the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution
American Revolution
and inspired the rebels in 1776 to declare independence from Britain.[2] His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era rhetoric of transnational human rights.[3] Saul K. Padover described him as "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination".[4] Born in Thetford
Thetford
in the English county of Norfolk, Paine migrated to the British American colonies in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin, arriving just in time to participate in the American Revolution
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Republic Of Texas
French and German Native languages (Caddo, Comanche) and Portuguese regionallyGovernment Constitutional republicPresident1 •  1836 David G. Burnet •  1836–38 Sam Houston, 1st term •  1838–41 Mirabeau B. Lamar •  1841–44 Sam Houston, 2nd term •  1844–46 Anson JonesVice President1 •  1836 Lorenzo de Zavala •  1836–38 Mirabeau B. Lamar •  1838–41 David G. Burnet •  1841–44 Edward Burleson •  1844–45 Kenneth L
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John Gast (painter)
American Progress
American Progress
is an 1872 painting by John Gast, a Prussian-born painter, printer, and lithographer who lived and worked most of his life in Brooklyn, New York. American Progress, an allegory of Manifest Destiny, was widely disseminated in chromolithographic prints. It is now held by the Autry Museum of the American West
Autry Museum of the American West
in Los Angeles, California.[1] Other than he painted American Progress, and that he was born December 21, 1842, in Berlin, and died July 26, 1896, in Brooklyn,[2], little else is known about Gast's life. Description[edit] American Progress
American Progress
has become a seminal example of American Western art. The painting serves as an allegory for the Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny
and American westward expansion
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Oregon Country
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed region of the Pacific Northwest of North America. The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, and American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from the Columbia River frequented by ships from all nations engaged in the maritime fur trade, most of these from the 1790s through 1810s being Boston-based. The Oregon Treaty of 1846 ended disputed joint occupancy pursuant to the Treaty of 1818 and established the British-American boundary at the 49th parallel (except Vancouver Island).[citation needed] Oregon was a distinctly American term for the region. The British used the term Columbia District instead.[1] The Oregon Country consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40′N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains — with the eastern border generally running on or close to the Continental Divide — westwards to the Pacific Ocean
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United Kingdom Of Great Britain And Ireland
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
was a sovereign country in western Europe, the predecessor to the modern United Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and Northern Ireland. It was established on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars. Britain, with its unsurpassed Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and British Empire, became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War
Crimean War
with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century.[1] Rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the state's formation continued up until the mid-19th century
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John Quincy Adams
John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams (/ˈkwɪnzi/ ( listen);[a] July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was an American statesman who served as a diplomat, minister and ambassador to foreign nations, and treaty negotiator, United States Senator, U.S. Representative (Congressman) from Massachusetts, and the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He was the son of second president John Adams (1735–1826, served 1797–1801) and his wife, Abigail Adams. He was a member of the Federalists, like his father, but later switched to the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later the Anti-Masonic and Whig parties when they were organized. Adams shaped early American foreign policy using his ardently nationalist commitment to U.S. republican values
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Expansionism
In general, expansionism consists of policies of governments and states that involve territorial, military or economic expansion. While some have linked the term to promoting economic growth (in contrast to no growth or sustainable policies), more commonly expansionism refers to the doctrine of a state expanding its territorial base or economic influence. This occurs usually, though not necessarily, by means of military aggression. Compare empire-building, colonialism, and mensurable. Anarchism, reunification or pan-nationalism are sometimes used to justify and legitimize expansionism, but only when the explicit goal is to reconquer territories that have been lost, or to take over ancestral lands
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Romantic Nationalism
Romantic nationalism
Romantic nationalism
(also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the particular manner of practice, the language, race, culture, religion, and customs of the nation in its primal sense of those who were born within its culture. This form of nationalism arose in reaction to dynastic or imperial hegemony, which assessed the legitimacy of the state from the top down, emanating from a monarch or other authority, which justified its existence
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Julian Hawthorne
Julian Hawthorne
Julian Hawthorne
(June 22, 1846 – July 21, 1934) was an American writer and journalist, the son of novelist Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
and Sophia Peabody. He wrote numerous poems, novels, short stories, mystery/detective fiction, essays, travel books, biographies, and histories. As a journalist, he reported on the Indian Famine for Cosmopolitan magazine and the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
for the New York Journal.Contents1 Biography1.1 Birth and childhood 1.2 Early career 1.3 Fraud and imprisonment2 Works 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksBiography[edit] Birth and childhood[edit] Julian Hawthorne
Julian Hawthorne
was the second child[1] of Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne
and Sophia Peabody Hawthorne
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Divine Providence
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe. The term "Divine Providence" (usually capitalized) is also used as a title of God. A distinction is usually made between "general providence", which refers to God's continuous upholding the existence and natural order of the universe, and "special providence", which refers to God's extraordinary intervention in the life of people.[1] Miracles generally fall in the latter category.[2]Contents1 Etymology 2 Catholic theology 3 Reformed theology 4 Lutheran theology 5 Eastern Orthodox theology 6 Swedenborgian theology 7 In Jewish thought 8 LDS theology 9 Specific examples9.1 Text of Scripture10 See also 11 References 12 External links12.1 Christian material 12.2 Jewish materialEtymology[edit] The word comes from Latin providentia "foresight, prudence", from pro- "ahead" and videre "to see"
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Ulysses S. Grant
American Civil War American Civil War
American Civil War
ServiceCampaigns: Vicksburg Chattanooga Overland Petersburg AppomattoxGeneral Order No. 11Post-war army servicePresident of the United States Presidency1868 presidential campaignElection1st inauguration1872 reelection campaignElection2nd inaugurationReconstruction 15th AmendmentScandals Reforms Grantism Peace Policy Judicial AppointmentsPost-PresidencyLater life World tour 3rd term bid Tomb Memorial Historical reputation Depictions Memoirs Bibliographyv t eUlysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant;[a] April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States
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Republican Democracy
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy
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James K. Polk
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849). He previously was Speaker of the House of Representatives (1835–1839) and Governor of Tennessee
Governor of Tennessee
(1839–1841). A protégé of Andrew Jackson, he was a member of the Democratic Party and an advocate of Jacksonian democracy. During Polk's presidency, the United States expanded significantly with the annexation of the Republic of Texas, the Oregon Territory, and the Mexican Cession following the American victory in the Mexican–American War. After building a successful law practice in Tennessee, Polk was elected to the state legislature (1823) and then to the United States House of Representatives in 1825, becoming a strong supporter of Jackson. After serving as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, he became Speaker in 1835, the only president to have been Speaker
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Robert Charles Winthrop
Robert Charles Winthrop
Robert Charles Winthrop
(May 12, 1809 – November 16, 1894) was an American lawyer and philanthropist and one time Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
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Puritan
The Puritans
Puritans
were English Reformed
Reformed

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