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Manfredonia
MANFREDONIA is a town and comune of Apulia , Italy, in the province of Foggia
Foggia
, from which it is 35 kilometres (22 miles) northeast by rail. Manfredonia
Manfredonia
is situated on the coast, facing east, to the south of Monte Gargano
Monte Gargano
, and gives its name to the gulf to the east of it. As of 2011 its population was 57,416. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Main sights * 4 Transport * 5 Demographics * 6 Personalities * 7 See also * 8 Gallery * 9 References and sources * 10 External links HISTORYThe area of current Manfredonia
Manfredonia
was settled in ancient times by the Greeks
Greeks
, founded by Diomedes
Diomedes

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Aequum Tuticum
ARIANO IRPINO (formerly ARIANO DI PUGLIA or simply ARIANO) is an Italian town and municipality in the province of Avellino
Avellino
, in the Campania
Campania
region. With a population of 22,517 (2011) it is the second-largest town of the Irpinia district and of the province of Avellino, with Avellino
Avellino
itself being the largest. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Overview * 1.2 Surroundings * 2 History * 3 Demographics * 4 Culture * 4.1 Majolica
Majolica
* 4.2 Museums * 4.3 Research activity * 4.4 Food * 4.5 In popular culture * 5 Personalities * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links GEOGRAPHY The public garden OVERVIEWAt an elevation of 778 metres (2,552 ft) above sea level , Ariano Irpino is centred between the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
and the Tyrrhenian Sea
Tyrrhenian Sea

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Benevento
BENEVENTO listen (help ·info ) (Neapolitan : Beneviento) is a city and comune of Campania
Campania
, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento
Benevento
, 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Naples
Naples
. It is situated on a hill 130 metres (427 feet) above sea level at the confluence of the Calore Irpino (or Beneventano) and the Sabato . It is also the seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop . Around Benevento
Benevento
there is an urban area with 110,000 inhabitants. Benevento
Benevento
occupies the site of the ancient BENEVENTUM, originally MALEVENTUM or still earlier Maloenton . The "-vent" portion of the name probably refers to a market-place and is a common element in ancient place names. The Romans theorized that it meant "the site of bad events", from Mal(um) + eventum
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Via Appia
The APPIAN WAY ( Latin
Latin
and Italian : VIA APPIA) was one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads
Roman roads
of the ancient republic . It connected Rome
Rome
to Brindisi
Brindisi
, in southeast Italy
Italy
. Its importance is indicated by its common name, recorded by Statius
Statius
: Appia longarum... regina viarum "the Appian
Appian
Way the queen of the long roads" The road is named after Appius Claudius Caecus , the Roman censor
Roman censor
who began and completed the first section as a military road to the south in 312 BC during the Samnite Wars
Samnite Wars

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Italo-Normans
The ITALO-NORMANS, or SICULO-NORMANS when referring to Sicily and Southern Italy , are the Italian -born descendants of the first Norman conquerors to travel to southern Italy in the first half of the eleventh century. While maintaining much of their distinctly Norman piety and customs of war, they were shaped by the diversity of southern Italy, by the cultures and customs of the Greeks , Lombards , and Arabs in Sicily. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Italo-Norman families * 3 Further reading * 4 Notes * 5 See also HISTORY Normans first arrived in Italy as pilgrims probably either on their way or returning from Rome or Jerusalem also visiting the shrine at Monte Gargano in the late tenth and early eleventh century
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Luceria
LUCERIA is an ancient city in the northern Apennines
Apennines
, located in the comune of Canossa
Canossa
in the Province of Reggio Emilia , on the right bank of the river Enza . CONTENTS * 1 Toponym * 2 History * 3 Excavations * 3.1 Excavations of Angelo Schenoni (1776-1786) * 3.2 Excavations of Gaetano Chierici (1861–1862) * 3.3 Twentieth century * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Bibliography TOPONYMThe name might derive from lucus, which means "sacred grove". It is not clear if this was the proper name of the city or if it was called Nuceria. The little stream which separates Canossa
Canossa
from San Polo d\' Enza is still called the Rio Luceria
Luceria
today. The name of this stream is fairly old as it appears in the 1364 property records of Azzo da Correggio as Rivum Luxerae
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Alexander The Great
ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas Koine Greek: ), was a king (basileus ) of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty . He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece
Greece
to northwestern India
India
. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders
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Greeks
The GREEKS or HELLENES (Greek : Έλληνες, Éllines ) are an ethnic group native to Greece
Greece
, Cyprus
Cyprus
, southern Albania
Albania
, Italy
Italy
, Turkey
Turkey
, Egypt
Egypt
and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
. They also form a significant diaspora , with Greek communities established around the world
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Diomedes
DIOMEDES (/ˌdaɪəˈmiːdiːz/ or /ˌdaɪˈɒmɪdiːz/ ) or DIOMEDE (/ˈdaɪəmiːd/ ; Greek : Διομήδης Diomēdēs "God-like cunning, advised by Zeus") is a hero in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
, known for his participation in the Trojan War
Trojan War
. He was born to Tydeus and Deipyle and later became King of Argos
Argos
, succeeding his maternal grandfather, Adrastus . In Homer
Homer
's Iliad Diomedes
Diomedes
is regarded alongside Ajax as one of the best warriors of all the Achaeans (behind only Achilles
Achilles
in prowess). Later, he founded ten or more Italian cities. After his death, Diomedes
Diomedes
was worshipped as a divine being under various names in Italy
Italy
and also in Greece
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Alexander Of Epirus
ALEXANDER I OF EPIRUS ( Ancient Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος Α' τῆς Ἠπείρου, 370 BC – 331 BC), also known as ALEXANDER MOLOSSUS (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μολοσσός), was a king of Epirus (350–331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty . As the son of Neoptolemus I and brother of Olympias , Alexander I was an uncle of Alexander the Great . He was also an uncle of Pyrrhus of Epirus . He was brought at an early age to the court of Philip II of Macedon , and after the Hellenic fashion became the object of his attachment. At the age of about 20, Philip made him king of Epirus, after dethroning his uncle Arybbas . When Olympias was repudiated by her husband, 337 BC, she went to her brother, and endeavoured to induce him to make war on Philip
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Argyrus (Catepan Of Italy)
ARGYRUS (or Argyros; c. 1000–1068) was a Lombard nobleman and Byzantine general . A son of the Lombard hero Melus , he was born at Bari around 1000. Upon the defeat of Melus, who had rebelled against the Byzantines, at the battle of Cannae in 1018, Argyrus and his mother were captured and taken to Constantinople as prisoners. He was out of confinement by 1038, when he returned to Apulia , then in an uproar over being pressed into service during the Byzantine invasion of Sicily . The Lombard troops returned with their Norman and Varangian comrades in 1039, alienated by General George Maniaches . In 1040, the Lombards of southern Italy revolted against their Greek overlords, with the support of Norman mercenaries, and slew the catepan Nikephoros Dokeianos . In March, the rebels scored a first victory , against the new catepan, Michael Dokeianos , near the Olivento . On 3 September 1041, they defeated another Byzantine catepan, Basil , the son of Boiannes , and took him captive
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Countship Of Apulia
The COUNTY OF APULIA AND CALABRIA, later the DUCHY OF APULIA AND CALABRIA, was a Norman country founded by William of Hauteville in 1042 in the territories of Gargano , Capitanata , Apulia , Campania , and Vulture . It became a duchy when Robert Guiscard was raised to the rank of duke by Pope Nicholas II in 1059. The duchy was disestablished in 1130 when the last duke of Apulia and Calabria, Roger II of Sicily became King of Sicily . The title of duke was thereafter used intermittently as a title for the heir apparent to the Kingdom of Sicily . CONTENTS * 1 Creation * 2 List of counts and dukes * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CREATIONWilliam I of Hauteville, who returned in September 1042 in Melfi , was recognized by all the Normans as supreme leader. He turned to Guaimar IV , Lombard, Prince of Salerno , and Rainulf Drengot , Count of Aversa , and offered both an alliance
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Gargano
GARGANO (Italian pronunciation: ) is a historical and geographical sub-region in the province of Foggia , Apulia , southeast Italy, consisting of a wide isolated mountain massif made of highland and several peaks and forming the backbone of the Gargano Promontory projecting into the Adriatic Sea , the "spur" on the Italian "boot". The high point is Monte Calvo at 1,065 m (3,494 ft). Most of the upland area, about 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi), is part of the Gargano National Park , founded in 1991. It is within the Italian Province of Foggia . The Gargano peninsula is partly covered by the remains of an ancient forest, Foresta Umbra, the only remaining part in Italy of the ancient oak and beech forest that once covered much of Central Europe as well as the Apennine deciduous montane forest biome . The Latin poet Horace spoke of the oaks of Garganus in Ode II, ix
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Monte Sant'Angelo
MONTE may refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Places * 1.1 Portugal * 1.2 Elsewhere * 2 People * 2.1 Surname * 2.2 Given name or nickname * 3 Other uses * 4 See also PLACESPORTUGAL * Monte, a civil parish in the municipality of Fafe * Monte (Funchal) , a civil parish in the municipality of Funchal * Monte, a civil parish in the municipality of Murtosa * Monte, a civil parish in the municipality of Terras de Bouro ELSEWHERE * Argentine Monte , an ecoregion in Argentina * Monte Partido , a partido in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina * Monte Desert , Argentina * Monte Lake , British Columbia, Canada * Monte, Haute-Corse , a commune in Corsica, France * Monte, Switzerland , a village in the municipality Castel San Pietro , Ticino, Switzerland * Monte, U.S
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Hohenstaufen
The HOHENSTAUFEN, also called the STAUFER or STAUFEN, were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
(1194–1268). In Italian historiography, they are known as the Svevi (Swabians), since they were (successive) dukes of Swabia from 1079. Three members of the dynasty—Frederick I , Henry VI and Frederick II —were crowned Holy Roman Emperor
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye ), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the TURKISH EMPIRE or simply TURKEY, was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province ) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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