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Mandatory Palestine
MANDATORY PALESTINE (Arabic : فلسطين‎‎ _Filasṭīn_; Hebrew : פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י)‎ _Pālēśtīnā (EY)_, where "EY" indicates " Eretz Yisrael ", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I . British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. During its existence the territory was known simply as _Palestine_, but, in later years, a variety of other names and descriptors have been used, including _Mandatory_ or MANDATE PALESTINE, the BRITISH MANDATE OF PALESTINE and BRITISH PALESTINE. During the First World War (1914–18), an Arab uprising and the British Empire 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign . The United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, and in the end the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement —an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine
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Emirate Of Transjordan
Coordinates : 31°57′N 35°56′E / 31.950°N 35.933°E / 31.950; 35.933 Emirate of Transjordan إمارة شرق الأردن _Imārat Sharq al-Urdun_ Mandate for Palestine and Transjordan memorandum 1921–1946 Flag The regions administered by the Emirate ("Transjordan", in light pink) CAPITAL Amman LANGUAGES Arabic GOVERNMENT Monarchy EMIR • 1921–1946 Abdullah I BRITISH REPRESENTATIVE • 1921 Albert Abramson • 1921 T. E
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British Mandate For Palestine (legal Instrument)
The BRITISH MANDATE FOR PALESTINE, also known as the MANDATE FOR PALESTINE or the PALESTINE MANDATE, was a League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate for the territory that had formerly constituted the Ottoman Empire sanjaks of Nablus
Nablus
, Acre , the Southern part of the Vilayet of Syria , the Southern portion of the Beirut Vilayet
Beirut Vilayet
, and the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem , prior to the Armistice of Mudros . The draft of the Mandate for Palestine was formally confirmed by the Council of the League of Nations
League of Nations
on 24 July 1922, supplemented via the 16 September 1922 Trans-Jordan memorandum and then came into effect on 29 September 1923, following the ratification of the Treaty of Lausanne , with the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as the administering mandatory. The document was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
League of Nations
and of the San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920, which embodied decisions made after the First World War at the San Remo conference
San Remo conference
, where the Supreme Council of the Prinicipal Allied Powers was reconvened
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League Of Nations Mandate
A LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I
World War I
, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
League of Nations
, entered into on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
after World War II , it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations , subject to future discussions and formal agreements. Most of the remaining mandates of the League of Nations
League of Nations
(with the exception of South-West Africa
South-West Africa
) thus eventually became United Nations
United Nations
Trust Territories
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Flag Of Palestine
The PALESTINIAN FLAG (Arabic : علم فلسطين‎‎) is a tricolor of three equal horizontal stripes (black, white, and green from top to bottom) overlaid by a red triangle issuing from the hoist. This flag is derived from the Pan-Arab colors and it is used to represent the State of Palestine and the Palestinian people . The flag is almost identical to that of the Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz and the Arab Socialist Ba\'ath Party (both use a 2:3 ratio as opposed to the Palestine's 1:2) as well as the short-lived Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan (which had an equilateral triangle at the hoist). It is also very similar to the Flag of Jordan and Flag of Western Sahara , all of which draw their inspiration from the Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule (1916–1918). The flag of the Arab Revolt had the same graphic form, but the colours were arranged differently (white on the bottom, rather than in the middle). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Ban * 3 Historical flags * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links ORIGIN Palestinian flag over the Alhambra Cinema, Jaffa , 1937 The flag used by the Arab Palestinian nationalists in the first half of the 20th century is the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt. The origins of the flag are the subject of dispute and mythology
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Jerusalem
JERUSALEM (/dʒəˈruːsələm/ ; Hebrew : יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ _ Yerushalayim _ ; Arabic : القُدس‎‎ _ al-Quds _ ) is a city in the Middle East , located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea . Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. One of the oldest cities in the world , Jerusalem was named as _"Urusalima"_ on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem " after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah . It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism , Christianity and Islam . During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Islam
ISLAM (/ˈɪslɑːm/ ) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God ( Allah ) and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the world\'s second-largest religion and the fastest-growing major religion in the world , with over 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the global population, known as Muslims . Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful , all-powerful , unique , and has guided mankind through prophets , revealed scriptures and natural signs . The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran , viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, and the teachings and normative example (called the _sunnah _, composed of accounts called _hadith _) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE). Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam , Abraham , Moses , and Jesus . As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions , Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous are punished in hell
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Judaism
JUDAISM (from Latin : _Iudaismus_, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew יהודה‎, _Yehudah_, "Judah "; in Hebrew: יהדות‎, _Yahadut_, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos ) is an ancient monotheistic Abrahamic religion , with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Bible ), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud . It encompasses the religion , philosophy , culture and way of life of the Jewish people . Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship that God established with the Children of Israel . With between 14.5 and 17.4 million adherents worldwide, Judaism is the tenth-largest religion in the world . Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism , which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah
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Christianity
CHRISTIANITY is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ , who serves as the focal point of the Christian faith . It is the world\'s largest religion , with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, known as Christians . Christians make up a majority of the population in 158 countries and territories . They believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah (the Christ ) was prophesied in the Old Testament . Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles\' Creed and Nicene Creed . These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered , died , was buried , descended into hell , and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins . The creeds further maintain that Jesus physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit , and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation , earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel ", meaning "good news"
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Baha'i Faith
The BAHá\'í FAITH (Persian : بهائی‎‎ Bahā'i) is an Abrahamic religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people. Established by Bahá\'u\'lláh in 1863, it initially grew in the Middle East
Middle East
and now has between 5-7 million adherents, known as BAHá\'íS, spread out into most of the world's countries and territories, with the highest concentrations in India
India
and Iran
Iran
. The religion was born in Iran
Iran
, where it has faced ongoing persecutions since its inception. It grew from the mid-19th century Bábí religion , whose founder reinterpreted Shia Islam
Shia Islam
and said that God
God
would soon send a prophet in the manner of Jesus
Jesus
or Muhammad
Muhammad
. In 1863, after being banished from his native Iran
Iran
, Bahá\'u\'lláh announced that he was this prophet. He was further exiled, spending over a decade in the prison city of Akka in the Ottoman province of Syria , in what is now Israel
Israel

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Druze
_WESTERN_ * Revelation
Revelation
* Divine illumination * Divine light _EASTERN_ * Jnana * Bodhi
Bodhi
* Prajna *
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League Of Nations Mandate
A LEAGUE OF NATIONS MANDATE was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I
World War I
, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations
League of Nations
. These were of the nature of both a treaty and a constitution, which contained minority rights clauses that provided for the rights of petition and adjudication by the International Court. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations
League of Nations
, entered into on 28 June 1919. With the dissolution of the League of Nations
League of Nations
after World War II , it was stipulated at the Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
that the remaining Mandates should be placed under the trusteeship of the United Nations , subject to future discussions and formal agreements. Most of the remaining mandates of the League of Nations
League of Nations
(with the exception of South-West Africa
South-West Africa
) thus eventually became United Nations
United Nations
Trust Territories
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