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Mandarin Orange
The MANDARIN ORANGE ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata; Chinese : 橘子 or 桔子; pinyin : júzi), also known as the MANDARIN or MANDARINE, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges . Mandarins are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines , but this is not a botanical classification. Thin, pebbly skin Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid ). The taste is considered less sour , as well as sweeter and stronger. A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp , so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold
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Mandarin Orange (fruit)
The MANDARIN ORANGE, also known as the MANDARIN, is the fruit of the mandarin tree (or bush ). Among the most common types of mandarins are Citrus reticulata
Citrus reticulata
, Citrus unshiu
Citrus unshiu
, Citrus reshni , and various hybrids. Clementines and tangerines are also marketed as "mandarins". CONTENTS * 1 Appearance and structure * 2 Nutritional value * 3 Cultivation * 4 References APPEARANCE AND STRUCTUREMandarin orange fruits are small (4 to 8 cm). Their color is orange , orange-yellow, or orange-red. Their shape is spherical or oblate (flattened at the poles). The skin is thin and peels off easily. Their easiness to peel is an important advantage of mandarine oranges over other citrus fruits that all are more difficult to peel
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις _(taxis )_, meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία _(-nomia)_, meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plantae
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Angiosperms
sweet bay SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae Subkingdom: Embryophyta (unranked): Spermatophyta (unranked): ANGIOSPERMS GROUPS (APG IV) Basal angiosperms * Amborellales * Nymphaeales
Nymphaeales
* Austrobaileyales Core angiosperms * magnoliids * Chloranthales * monocots * Ceratophyllales * eudicots SYNONYMS * Anthophyta Cronquist * Angiospermae Lindl. * Magnoliophyta Cronquist , Takht. they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers , endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. Etymologically, angiosperm means a plant that produces seeds within an enclosure, in other words, a fruiting plant
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Eudicots
The EUDICOTS, EUDICOTIDAE or EUDICOTYLEDONS are a monophyletic clade of flowering plants that had been called TRICOLPATES or NON-MAGNOLIID DICOTS by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the later evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots. The close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was initially seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters . These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Later molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits. The term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots
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Rosids
The ROSIDS are members of a large clade (monophyletic group) of flowering plants , containing about 70,000 species , more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders , depending upon circumscription and classification . These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families . Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Relationships * 3 Classification * 3.1 Orders * 4 Phylogeny
Phylogeny
* 5 References * 6 External links NAMEThe name is based upon the name " Rosidae ", which had usually been understood to be a subclass
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Sapindales
See text SAPINDALES /sæpᵻnˈdeɪliːz/ is an order of flowering plants . Well-known members of Sapindales
Sapindales
include citrus ; maples , horse-chestnuts , lychees and rambutans ; mangos and cashews ; frankincense and myrrh ; mahogany and neem
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Rutaceae
Rutoideae Spathelioideae Dictyolomatoideae Toddalioideae Flindersioideae
Flindersioideae
Aurantioideae DIVERSITY About 160 genera, totaling over 1600 species. Range of subfamily Cneoroideae Range of subfamily RutoideaeThe RUTACEAE are a family , commonly known as the rue or citrus family, of flowering plants , usually placed in the order Sapindales . Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. They range in form and size from herbs to shrubs and small trees . The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus
Citrus
, which includes the orange (C. × sinensis), lemon (C. × limon), grapefruit (C. × paradisi), and lime (various, mostly C. aurantifolia, the key lime )
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Citrus
Important species: _ Citrus maxima_ – Pomelo _ Citrus medica_ – Citron _ Citrus micrantha_ – Papeda _ Citrus reticulata_ – Mandarin orange -------------------------Important hybrids: _ Citrus × aurantiifolia_ – Key lime _ Citrus × aurantium_ – Bitter orange _ Citrus × latifolia_ – Persian lime _ Citrus × limon_ – Lemon _ Citrus × limonia_ – Rangpur _ Citrus × paradisi_ – Grapefruit _ Citrus × sinensis_ – Sweet orange _ Citrus × tangerina_ – Tangerine See also below for other species and hybrids. SYNONYMS _Eremocitrus_ _Microcitrus_ and see text _CITRUS_ is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753
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Francisco Manuel Blanco
FRANCISCO MANUEL BLANCO (1778 – 1845) was a Spanish friar and botanist . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Books * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Navianos de Alba , Castilla y León
Castilla y León
, Spain, Blanco was a member of the Augustinian order of friars. His first assignment was in Angat in the province of Bulacan in the Philippines
Philippines
. He subsequently had a variety different assignments. Towards the end of his life, he became the delegate of his order in Manila
Manila
, traveling throughout the archipelago. He is the author of one of the first comprehensive flora of the Philippines, Flora de Filipinas. Según el sistema de Linneo (Flora of the Philippines according to the system of Linnaeus) which followed after the work done by Georg Joseph Kamel . The first two editions (Manila, 1837 and 1845) were unillustrated
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang
Zhou Youguang
, based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government
Chinese government
in 1958 and revised several times
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Orange (fruit)
The ORANGE is the fruit of the citrus species Citrus
Citrus
× sinensis in the family Rutaceae . It is also called SWEET ORANGE, to distinguish it from the related Citrus
Citrus
× aurantium, referred to as bitter orange . The sweet orange reproduces asexually (apomixis through nucellar embryony ); varieties of sweet orange arise through mutations. The orange is a hybrid between pomelo ( Citrus
Citrus
maxima) and mandarin ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata). It has genes that are ~25% pomelo and ~75% mandarin; however, it is not a simple backcrossed BC1 hybrid, but hybridized over multiple generations. The chloroplast genes, and therefore the maternal line, seem to be pomelo. The sweet orange has had its full genome sequenced. Earlier estimates of the percentage of pomelo genes varying from ~50% to 6% have been reported
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Tangerine
The TANGERINE ( Citrus
Citrus
tangerina) is an orange-colored citrus fruit that is closely related to, or possibly a type of, mandarin orange ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata). The name was first used for fruit coming from Tangier , Morocco
Morocco
, described as a mandarin variety. Under the Tanaka classification system , Citrus
Citrus
tangerina is considered a separate species. Under the Swingle system , tangerines are considered to be a group of mandarin (C. reticulata ) varieties. While tangerines genetically resemble mandarins, the genetics are still not thoroughly studied. The term is currently applied to any reddish-orange mandarin (and, in some jurisdictions, mandarin-like hybrids, including some tangors ), but the term "tangerine" may yet acquire a definite genetic meaning. Tangerines are smaller and less rounded than common oranges
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