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Mandarin Orange
The mandarin orange ( Citrus
Citrus
reticulata; Chinese: 橘子 or 桔子; pinyin: júzi; Yue Chinese: 桔, jyutping: gat1), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads. Specifically reddish-orange mandarin cultivars can be marketed as tangerines, but this is not a botanical classification. Mandarins are smaller and oblate, rather than spherical like the common oranges (which are a mandarin hybrid). The taste is considered less sour, as well as sweeter and stronger.[1] A ripe mandarin is firm to slightly soft, heavy for its size, and pebbly-skinned. The peel is very thin, with very little bitter white mesocarp,[2] so they are usually easier to peel and to split into segments. Hybrids generally have these traits to a lesser degree. The mandarin orange tree is more drought-tolerant than the fruit. The mandarin is tender and is damaged easily by cold
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Traditional Chinese Medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
Traditional Chinese medicine
(TCM; simplified Chinese: 中医; traditional Chinese: 中醫; pinyin: Zhōngyī) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy,[1] but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine
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Mandarin (bureaucrat)
A mandarin (Chinese: 官 guān) was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China and Vietnam. The term is generally applied to the officials appointed through the imperial examination system; it sometimes includes and sometimes excludes the eunuchs also involved in the governance of the two realms.Contents1 History and use of the term 2 History 3 Ranks under the Qing dynasty 4 Figurative meaning 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory and use of the term[edit] The English term comes from the Portuguese mandarim (spelled in Old Portuguese as mandarin pronounced [ˌmɐ̃n.ðaˈɾĩn]). The Portuguese word is amply attested already in one of the earliest Portuguese reports about China: letters from the imprisoned survivors of the Tomé Pires' embassy, which were most likely written in 1524,[1] and in Castanheda's História do descobrimento e conquista da Índia pelos portugueses (c
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Pollen
Pollen
Pollen
is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen
Pollen
grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gametophytes during the process of their movement from the stamens to the pistil of flowering plants, or from the male cone to the female cone of coniferous plants. If pollen lands on a compatible pistil or female cone, it germinates, producing a pollen tube that transfers the sperm to the ovule containing the female gametophyte. Individual pollen grains are small enough to require magnification to see detail
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Parthenocarpic
In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning "virgin fruit") is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules, which makes the fruit seedless. Stenospermocarpy may also produce apparently seedless fruit, but the seeds are actually aborted while they are still small. Parthenocarpy (or stenospermocarpy) occasionally occurs as a mutation in nature; if it affects every flower the plant can no longer sexually reproduce but might be able to propagate by apomixis or by vegetative means. However, parthenocarpy of some fruits on a plant may be of value. Up to 20% of the fruits of wild parsnip are parthenocarpic
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Pollination
Pollination
Pollination
is an agent’s transferring pollen from a gymnosperm’s sporophyll to an ovule’s micropyle or an agent’s transferring pollen from an angiosperm’s anther to a carpel’s stigma [2]. Pollinating agents are animals, water, and wind and even plants themselves when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination
Pollination
often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant-breeding work. Pollination
Pollination
is a major obligate process in seed production. In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary
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Self-sterile
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a general name for several genetic mechanisms in angiosperms, which prevent self-fertilization and thus encourage outcrossing and allogamy. It should not be confused with genetically controlled physical or temporal mechanisms that prevent self-pollination, such as heterostyly and sequential hermaphroditism (dichogamy). In plants with SI, when a pollen grain produced in a plant reaches a stigma of the same plant or another plant with a similar genotype, the process of pollen germination, pollen-tube growth, ovule fertilization and embryo development is halted at one of its stages and consequently no seeds are produced
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Pollinator
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower. This helps to bring about fertilization of the ovules in the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grains. Insect pollinators include bees, (honey bees, solitary species, bumblebees); pollen wasps (Masarinae); ants; flies including bee flies, hoverflies and mosquitoes; lepidopterans, both butterflies and moths; and flower beetles. Vertebrates, mainly bats and birds, but also some non-bat mammals (monkeys, lemurs, possums, rodents) and some lizards pollinate certain plants
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Calque
In linguistics, a calque /kælk/ or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation. Used as a verb, "to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language. "Calque" itself is a loanword from the French noun calque ("tracing; imitation; close copy"); the verb calquer means "to trace; to copy, to imitate closely"; papier calque is "tracing paper".[1] The word "loanword" is itself a calque of the German word Lehnwort, just as "loan translation" is a calque of Lehnübersetzung.[2] Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than does an untranslated loanword because, in some cases, a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently
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Swedish Language
Swedish ( svenska (help·info) [²svɛnːska]) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden
Sweden
(as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker. Both Norwegian and Danish are generally easier to read than to listen to because of difference in accent and tone when speaking. Swedish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Tonne
The tonne (/tʌn/ ( listen)) (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (Mg); it is equivalent to approximately 2,204.6 pounds,[5] 1.102 short tons (US) or 0.984 long tons (imperial). Although not part of the SI, the tonne is accepted for use with SI units and prefixes by the International Committee for Weights and Measures.[6]Contents1 Symbol and abbreviations 2 Origin and spelling 3 Conversions 4 Derived units 5 Alternative usage5.1 Use of mass as proxy for energy 5.2 Unit of force6 See also 7 Notes and references 8 External linksSymbol and abbreviations[edit] The SI symbol for the tonne is "t", adopted at the same time as the unit in 1879.[2] Its use is also official for the metric ton in the United States, having been adopted by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology.[7] It
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Spain
Coordinates: 40°N 4°W / 40°N 4°W / 40; -4Kingdom of Spain Reino de España  (Spanish)6 other official names[a][b]Aragonese: Reino d'EspanyaAsturian: Reinu d'EspañaBasque: Espainiako ErresumaCatalan: Regne d'EspanyaGalician: Reino de EspañaOccitan: Reiaume d'EspanhaFlagCoat of armsMotto: "Plus Ultra" (Latin) "Further Beyond"Anthem: "Marcha Real" (Spanish)[2] "Royal March"Location of  Spain  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Capital and largest city Madrid 40°26′N 3°42′W / 40.433°N 3.700°W / 40.433; -3.700Official language and national language Spanish[c]Co-official languages in certain autonomous communities Catalan Galician Basque OccitanEthnic groups (2015)89.9% Spanish 10.1% othersReligi
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Turkey
Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti] ( listen)), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia
Anatolia
in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.[7] Turkey
Turkey
is bordered by eight countries with Greece
Greece
and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Iran
Iran
to the east; and Iraq
Iraq
and Syria
Syria
to the south
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