HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1500] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Malthusian Catastrophe
A MALTHUSIAN CATASTROPHE (also known as MALTHUSIAN CHECK or MALTHUSIAN SPECTRE) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence -level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production . CONTENTS * 1 Thomas Malthus * 2 Neo-Malthusian theory * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links THOMAS MALTHUSIn 1779, Thomas Malthus wrote: Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, sickly seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and tens of thousands. Should success be still incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with the food of the world. — Thomas Malthus, 1798. _An Essay on the Principle of Population _. Chapter VII, p61 Notwithstanding the apocalyptic image conveyed by this particular paragraph, Malthus himself did not subscribe to the notion that mankind was fated for a "catastrophe" due to population overshooting resources
[...More...]

"Malthusian Catastrophe" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Subsistence
A SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture . "Subsistence" means supporting oneself at a minimum level; in a subsistence economy, economic surplus is minimal and only used to trade for basic goods, and there is no industrialization . In the history of the world , before the first cities , all humans lived in a subsistence economy. As urbanization, civilization , and division of labor spread, various societies moved to other economic systems at various times. Some remain relatively unchanged, ranging from uncontacted peoples , to poor areas of developing countries , to some cultures that choose to retain a traditional economy . Capital can be generally defined as assets invested with the expectation that their value will increase, usually because there is the expectation of profit, rent, interest, royalties, capital gain or some other kind of return. However, this type of economy cannot usually become wealthy by virtue of the system, and instead requires further investments to stimulate economic growth . In other words, a subsistence economy only possesses enough goods to be used by a particular nation to maintain its existence and provides little to no surplus for other investments
[...More...]

"Subsistence" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Population Growth
In biology or human geography , POPULATION GROWTH is the increase in the number of individuals in a population . Global human population growth amounts to around 75 million annually, or 1.1% per year. The global population has grown from 1 billion in 1800 to 7 billion in 2012. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.4 billion by mid-2030, and 9.6 billion by mid-2050. Many nations with rapid population growth have low standards of living, whereas many nations with low rates of population growth have high standards of living. POPULATION YEARS PASSED YEAR BILLION - 1800 1 127 1927 2 33 1960 3 14 1974 4 13 1987 5 12 1999 6 12 2011 7 _12_ _2023_* 8 _14_ _2037_* 9 _18_ _2055_* 10 _33_ _2088_* 11 *World Population Prospects 2017 ( United Nations Population Division) CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Population growth rate * 2.1 Logistic equation * 3 Human population growth rate * 4 Growth by country * 5 Growth by region * 6 Into the future * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYThe growth of the population started in the Western world during industrialization by the end of the 18th century. The reasons for the "Modern Rise of Population" were particularly investigated by the British health scientist Thomas McKeown (1912-1988)
[...More...]

"Population Growth" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Agriculture
AGRICULTURE or FARMING is the cultivation and breeding of animals , plants and fungi for food , fiber , biofuel , medicinal plants and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture farming has become the dominant agricultural methodology. Modern agronomy , plant breeding , agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers , and technological developments have in many cases sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and the health effects of the antibiotics , growth hormones , and other chemicals commonly used in industrial meat production . Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries
[...More...]

"Agriculture" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Production (economics)
PRODUCTION is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output). It is the act of creating output , a good or service which has value and contributes to the utility of individuals. Economic well-being is created in a production process, meaning all economic activities that aim directly or indirectly to satisfy human wants and needs . The degree to which the needs are satisfied is often accepted as a measure of economic well-being. In production there are two features which explain increasing economic well-being. They are improving quality-price-ratio of goods and services and increasing incomes from growing and more efficient market production. The most important forms of production are * market production * public production * household production In order to understand the origin of the economic well-being we must understand these three production processes. All of them produce commodities which have value and contribute to well-being of individuals. The satisfaction of needs originates from the use of the commodities which are produced. The need satisfaction increases when the quality-price-ratio of the commodities improves and more satisfaction is achieved at less cost
[...More...]

"Production (economics)" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Thomas Robert Malthus
THOMAS ROBERT MALTHUS FRS (/ˈmælθəs/ ; 13 February 1766 – 29 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography . Malthus himself used only his middle name, Robert. In his 1798 book An Essay on the Principle of Population , Malthus observed that an increase in a nation's food production improved the well-being of the populace, but the improvement was temporary because it led to population growth, which in turn restored the original per capita production level. In other words, mankind had a propensity to utilize abundance for population growth rather than for maintaining a high standard of living, a view that has become known as the " Malthusian trap " or the "Malthusian spectre". Populations had a tendency to grow until the lower class suffered hardship and want and greater susceptibility to famine and disease , a view that is sometimes referred to as a Malthusian catastrophe . Malthus wrote in opposition to the popular view in 18th-century Europe that saw society as improving and in principle as perfectible. He saw population growth as being inevitable whenever conditions improved, thereby precluding real progress towards a utopian society: "The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man". As an Anglican cleric, Malthus saw this situation as divinely imposed to teach virtuous behaviour
[...More...]

"Thomas Robert Malthus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

An Essay On The Principle Of Population
The book _AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION_ was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus
Thomas Robert Malthus
. The book predicted a grim future, as population would increase geometrically, doubling every 25 years, but food production would only grow arithmetically, which would result in famine and starvation, unless births were controlled. While it was not the first book on population, it was revised for over 28 years and has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Malthus's book fuelled debate about the size of the population in the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and contributed to the passing of the Census Act 1800 . This Act enabled the holding of a national census in England, Wales and Scotland, starting in 1801 and continuing every ten years to the present. The book's 6th edition (1826) was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
in developing the theory of natural selection . A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' IRON LAW OF POPULATION
[...More...]

"An Essay On The Principle Of Population" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Hectare
The HECTARE (/ˈhɛktɛər/ or /ˈhɛktɑːr/ ; symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to 100 ares (10,000 m2) and primarily used in the measurement of land as a metric replacement for the imperial acre . An acre is about 0.405 hectare and one hectare contains about 2.47 acres. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the "are" was defined as 100 square metres and the hectare ("hecto- " + "are") was thus 100 "ares" or  1⁄100 km2. When the metric system was further rationalised in 1960, resulting in the International System of Units (SI), the _are_ was not included as a recognised unit. The hectare, however, remains as a non-SI unit accepted for use with the SI units, mentioned in Section 4.1 of the SI Brochure as a unit whose use is "expected to continue indefinitely"
[...More...]

"Hectare" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
[...More...]

"World War Ii" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Mechanized Agriculture
MECHANISED AGRICULTURE is the process of using agricultural machinery to mechanise the work of agriculture , greatly increasing farm worker productivity . In modern times, powered machinery has replaced many farm jobs formerly carried out by manual labour or by working animals such as oxen , horses and mules . The entire history of agriculture contains many examples of the use of tools, such as the hoe and the plough . But the ongoing integration of machines since the Industrial Revolution has allowed farming to become much less labour-intensive . Current mechanised agriculture includes the use of tractors , trucks , combine harvesters , countless types of farm implements , aeroplanes and helicopters (for aerial application ), and other vehicles. Precision agriculture even uses computers in conjunction with satellite imagery and satellite navigation (GPS guidance) to increase yields. Mechanisation was one of the large factors responsible for urbanisation and industrial economies. Besides improving production efficiency, mechanisation encourages large scale production and sometimes can improve the quality of farm produce. On the other hand, it can displace unskilled farm labour and can cause environmental degradation (such as pollution , deforestation , and soil erosion ), especially if it is applied shortsightedly rather than holistically
[...More...]

"Mechanized Agriculture" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Green Revolution
The GREEN REVOLUTION refers to a set of research and development of technology transfer initiatives occurring between the 1930s and the late 1960s (with prequels in the work of the agrarian geneticist Nazareno Strampelli in the 1920s and 1930s), that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s. The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including: ...new, high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals , and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation ) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization. All of these together were seen as a 'package of practices' to supersede 'traditional' technology and to be adopted as a whole. The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug , the "Father of the Green Revolution", who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds , synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers
[...More...]

"Green Revolution" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Paul R. Ehrlich
PAUL RALPH EHRLICH (born May 29, 1932) is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources. He is the Bing Professor of Population Studies of the Department of Biology of Stanford University and president of Stanford's Center for Conservation Biology . Ehrlich became well known for his controversial 1968 book The Population Bomb , which asserted that the world's human population would soon increase to the point where mass starvation ensued. Among the solutions he suggested in that book was population control , to be used in his opinion if voluntary methods were to fail. Ehrlich has been criticized for his opinions; for example, Ronald Bailey termed Ehrlich an irrepressible doomster. However, Carl Haub observed that Ehrlich's warnings had encouraged governments to change their policies to avert disaster. Ehrlich has acknowledged that some of what he predicted has not occurred, but that his predictions about disease and climate change were essentially correct, and maintains his opinion that overpopulation is a major problem
[...More...]

"Paul R. Ehrlich" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Demographic Transition
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system . The theory was proposed in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, who observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the previous 200 years. Most developed countries have completed the demographic transition and have low birth rates; most developing countries are in the process of this transition. The major (relative) exceptions are some poor countries, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa and some Middle Eastern countries, which are poor or affected by government policy or civil strife, notably, Pakistan, Palestinian territories , Yemen , and Afghanistan . The demographic transition model, in isolation, can be taken to predict that birth rates will continue to go down as societies grow increasingly wealthy; however, recent data contradicts this, suggesting that beyond a certain level of development birth rates increase again. In addition, in the very long term, the demographic transition should be reversed via evolutionary pressure for higher fertility and higher mortality
[...More...]

"Demographic Transition" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Total Fertility Rate
The TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (TFR), sometimes also called the FERTILITY RATE, ABSOLUTE/POTENTIAL NATALITY, PERIOD TOTAL FERTILITY RATE (PTFR) or TOTAL PERIOD FERTILITY RATE (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if: * She were to experience the exact current age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) through her lifetime, and * She were to survive from birth through the end of her reproductive life. It is obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time. CONTENTS * 1 Parameter characteristics * 2 Related parameters * 2.1 Net reproduction rate * 2.2 Total period fertility rate * 2.2.1 Tempo effect * 2.3 Replacement rates * 3 Lowest-low fertility * 4 Population-lag effect * 5 Developed or developing countries * 6 Politics * 7 United States * 8 World extremes * 9 Europe * 10 East Asia * 11 Africa * 12 Factors * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 External links PARAMETER CHARACTERISTICS Total fertility rate
Total fertility rate
for selected countries World historical TFR (1950–2015) UN, average variant, 2010 rev
[...More...]

"Total Fertility Rate" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

Fertility Factor (demography)
FERTILITY FACTORS are determinants of the number of children that an individual is likely to have. Fertility factors are mostly positive or negative correlations without certain causations . Factors generally associated w