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Malthusian Catastrophe
A MALTHUSIAN CATASTROPHE (also known as MALTHUSIAN CHECK or MALTHUSIAN SPECTRE) is a prediction of a forced return to subsistence -level conditions once population growth has outpaced agricultural production . CONTENTS * 1 Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
* 2 Neo-Malthusian theory * 3 Criticism * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links THOMAS MALTHUSIn 1779, Thomas Malthus
Thomas Malthus
wrote: Famine seems to be the last, the most dreadful resource of nature. The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation
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Kenneth Arrow
KENNETH JOSEPH "KEN" ARROW (23 August 1921 – 21 February 2017) was an American economist, mathematician, writer, and political theorist. He was the joint winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with John Hicks
John Hicks
in 1972. In economics, he was a figure in post-World War II neo-classical economic theory . Many of his former graduate students have gone on to win the Nobel Memorial Prize themselves. His most significant works are his contributions to social choice theory , notably "Arrow\'s impossibility theorem ", and his work on general equilibrium analysis. He has also provided foundational work in many other areas of economics, including endogenous growth theory and the economics of information
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Subsistence
A SUBSISTENCE ECONOMY is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture . "Subsistence" means supporting oneself at a minimum level; in a subsistence economy, economic surplus is minimal and only used to trade for basic goods, and there is no industrialization . In the history of the world , before the first cities , all humans lived in a subsistence economy. As urbanization, civilization , and division of labor spread, various societies moved to other economic systems at various times. Some remain relatively unchanged, ranging from uncontacted peoples , to poor areas of developing countries , to some cultures that choose to retain a traditional economy . Capital can be generally defined as assets invested with the expectation that their value will increase, usually because there is the expectation of profit, rent, interest, royalties, capital gain or some other kind of return
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Karl Marx
KARL MARX (/mɑːrks/ ; German: ; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a Prussian-born philosopher , economist , political theorist , sociologist , journalist , and revolutionary socialist . Born in Trier to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy . As an adult, Marx became stateless and spent much of his life in London, England , where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and published various works, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet _ The Communist Manifesto _. His work has since influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Ecological Collapse
ECOLOGICAL COLLAPSE refers to a situation where an ecosystem suffers a drastic, possibly permanent, reduction in carrying capacity for all organisms, often resulting in mass extinction . Usually, an ecological collapse is precipitated by a disastrous event occurring on a short time scale. Ecosystems have the ability to rebound from a disruptive agent. The difference between collapse or a gentle rebound is determined by two factors—the toxicity of the introduced element and the resiliency of the original ecosystem . Through natural selection the planet's species have continuously adapted to change through variation in their biological composition and distribution. Mathematically it can be demonstrated that greater numbers of different biological factors tend to dampen fluctuations in each of the individual factors. Scientists can predict tipping points for ecological collapse
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Great Depression
The GREAT DEPRESSION was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression
Great Depression
varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until 1941. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression
Great Depression
is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States
United States
, after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday
Black Tuesday
). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession
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1918 Flu Pandemic
The 1918 FLU PANDEMIC (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic , the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1
H1N1
influenza virus . It infected 500 million people around the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million (three to five percent of the world's population ), making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history. Disease had already greatly limited life expectancy in the early 20th century. A considerable spike occurred at the time of the pandemic, specifically the year 1918. Life expectancy in the United States alone dropped by about 12 years. Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients; in contrast, the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults. There are several possible explanations for the high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic
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Friedrich Engels
FRIEDRICH ENGELS (English: /ˈɛŋɡəlz/ or /ˈɛŋəlz/ ; German: ; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher , social scientist , journalist , and businessman . He founded Marxist theory together with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
. In 1845, he published _The Condition of the Working Class in England
England
_, based on personal observations and research in Manchester
Manchester
. In 1848, he co-authored _ The Communist Manifesto _ with Marx, though he also authored and co-authored (primarily with Marx) many other works, and later he supported Marx
Marx
financially to do research and write _ Das Kapital
Das Kapital
_. After Marx's death, Engels edited the second and third volumes
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Relative Surplus Population
RESERVE ARMY OF LABOUR is a concept in Karl Marx
Karl Marx
's critique of political economy . It refers to the unemployed and under-employed in capitalist society. It is synonymous with "industrial reserve army" or "relative surplus population", except that the unemployed can be defined as those actually looking for work and that the relative surplus population also includes people unable to work. The use of the word "army" refers to the workers being conscripted and regimented in the workplace in a hierarchy , under the command or authority of the owners of capital
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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The Dismal Science
"THE DISMAL SCIENCE" is a derogatory alternative name for economics coined by the Victorian historian Thomas Carlyle in the 19th century. The term drew a contrast with the then-familiar use of the phrase "gay science" to refer to song and verse writing. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Beyond Carlyle * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ORIGINThe phrase "the dismal science" first occurs in Thomas Carlyle's 1849 tract called Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question , in which he argued in favor of reintroducing slavery in order to restore productivity to the West Indies
West Indies
: Not a "gay science", I should say, like some we have heard of; no, a dreary, desolate and, indeed, quite abject and distressing one; what we might call, by way of eminence, the dismal science
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R/K Selection Theory
In ecology , R/K SELECTION THEORY relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring. The focus upon either increased quantity of offspring at the expense of individual parental investment of r-strategists, or reduced quantity of offspring with a corresponding increased parental investment of K-strategists, varies widely, seemingly to promote success in particular environments. The terminology of r/K-selection was coined by the ecologists Robert MacArthur and E. O. Wilson
E. O. Wilson
in 1970 based on their work on island biogeography ; although the concept of the evolution of life history strategies has a longer history (see e.g. plant strategies ). The theory was popular in the 1970s and 1980s, when it was used as a heuristic device, but lost importance in the early 1990s, when it was criticized by several empirical studies
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Joseph Tainter
JOSEPH A. TAINTER (born December 8, 1949) is an American anthropologist and historian. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Social complexity * 3 Diminishing returns
Diminishing returns
* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links BIOGRAPHYTainter studied anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley and Northwestern University
Northwestern University
, where he received his Ph.D. in 1975. As of 2012 he holds a professorship in the Department of Environment and Society at Utah State University
Utah State University
. His previous positions include Project Leader of Cultural Heritage Research, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albuquerque, New Mexico and Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico
University of New Mexico
. Tainter has written or edited many articles and monographs
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Ester Boserup
ESTER BOSERUP (18 May 1910 – 24 September 1999) was a Danish economist . She studied economic and agricultural development, worked at the United Nations
United Nations
as well as other international organizations , and wrote seminal books on agrarian change and the role of women in development. Boserup is known for her theory of agricultural intensification, also known as QAYS\'S THEORY, which posits that population change drives the intensity of agricultural production. Her position countered the Malthusian theory that agricultural methods determine population via limits on food supply . Her best-known book on this subject The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, presents a "dynamic analysis embracing all types of primitive agriculture." (Boserup, E. 1965. p 13) A major point of her book is that "necessity is the mother of invention "
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Capital Accumulation
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION (also termed THE ACCUMULATION OF CAPITAL) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit , rent , interest , royalties or capital gains . The process of capital accumulation forms the basis of capitalism , and is one of the defining characteristics of a capitalist economic system . In a more broad sense, capital accumulation may refer to the gathering or amassing of any objects of value as judged by one's perceived reproductive interest group
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