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Malpighiales
RhizophoralesAspidopterys cordata (Malpighiaceae)The Malpighiales
Malpighiales
comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about 16,000 species, about 7.8% of the eudicots.[2] The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, poinsettia, and coca plant, and are hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence
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Cretaceous
The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/, kri-TAY-shəs) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate, resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas. These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles, ammonites and rudists, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds, as well as flowering plants, appeared
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Jurassic
The Jurassic
Jurassic
( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Jan Svatopluk Presl
Jan Svatopluk Presl
Jan Svatopluk Presl
(4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist. He was the brother of botanist Karel Bořivoj Presl
Karel Bořivoj Presl
(1794–1852). The Czech Botanical Society commemorated the two brothers by naming its principal publication Preslia (founded in 1914). He is the author of Czech scientific terminology of various branches of science, including the Czech chemical nomenclature. He was the co-author of an important Czech taxonomic work,O Prirozenosti Rostlin.Contents1 Selected publications 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSelected publications[edit]Berchtold, Friedrich von; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820). O Prirozenosti Rostlin. Prague: Krala Wiljma Endersa.  Berchtold, Friedrich von; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820–1835). O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinář
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Friedrich Von Berchtold
Count
Count
Friedrich Carl Eugen Vsemir von Berchtold, baron von Ungarschitz (Czech: Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent.Contents1 Biography 2 Selected publications 3 Notes 4 References 5 External links 6 BibliographyBiography[edit] Berchtold was born in Stráž nad Nežárkou
Stráž nad Nežárkou
(German: Platz an der Naser) (now District Jindřichův Hradec), in the Austrian Empire. He graduated from medical school in 1804, after which he practiced medicine and devoted much of his time to botany and natural history. He eventually abandoned regular medical practice and travelled throughout Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Brazil
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
(French pronunciation: ​[ɑ̃twan loʁɑ̃ də ʒysjø]; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist, notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu.Contents1 Life 2 Selected publications 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 WikimediaLife[edit] Jussieu was born in Lyon. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine, graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Neogene
The Neogene
Neogene
( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/)[6][7] (informally Upper Tertiary or Late Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary
Quaternary
Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary. During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period
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Paleogene
The Paleogene (/ˈpæliədʒiːn, ˈpeɪliə-/; also spelled Palaeogene or Palæogene; informally Lower Tertiary or Early Tertiary) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Triassic
The Triassic
Triassic
( /traɪˈæsɪk/) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 201.3 Mya.[8] The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.[9] The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event, which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time
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Permian
The Permian
Permian
is a geologic period and system which spans 46.7 million years from the end of the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
Period 298.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic
Triassic
period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era; the following Triassic
Triassic
period belongs to the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era. The concept of the Permian
Permian
was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian
Permian
witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles, lepidosaurs, and archosaurs. The world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea
Pangaea
and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa
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Carboniferous
The Carboniferous
Carboniferous
is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian
Devonian
Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian
Permian
Period, 298.9 Mya
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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