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Malpighiales
Rhizophorales Aspidopterys cordata ( Malpighiaceae ) The MALPIGHIALES comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants , containing about 16,000 species , about 7.8% of the eudicots . The order is very diverse, containing plants as different as the willow, violet, Poinsettia , and coca plant, and are hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems based only on plant morphology . Molecular clock calculations estimate the origin of stem group Malpighiales at around 100 million years ago (Mya ) and the origin of crown group Malpighiales at about 90 Mya. The Malpighiales are divided into 32 to 42 families , depending upon which clades in the order are given the taxonomic rank of family. In the APG III system , 35 families are recognized
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Malesherbiaceae
etc. MALESHERBIA is a genus of flowering plants consisting of about 27 species in the Passifloraceae
Passifloraceae
. This is a xerophytic group endemic to the Peruvian and Chilean deserts and adjacent Argentina
Argentina
. The genus is currently recognized by the APG III system of classification in the Passifloraceae
Passifloraceae
family, but was formerly recognized as the sole genus of the family Malesherbiaceae. REFERENCES * ^ Stephens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website . Version 9, June 2008. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/ This Passifloraceae
Passifloraceae
article is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) (informally UPPER TERTIARY or LATE TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene
Pliocene
. Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene
Neogene
Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. In one sense (circumscription ), the term refers to GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Antoine Laurent De Jussieu
ANTOINE LAURENT DE JUSSIEU (French pronunciation: ​ ; 12 April 1748 – 17 September 1836) was a French botanist , notable as the first to publish a natural classification of flowering plants ; much of his system remains in use today. His classification was based on and extended unpublished work by his uncle, the botanist Bernard de Jussieu . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Selected publications * 3 Legacy * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography * 7 Wikimedia LIFEJussieu was born in Lyon
Lyon
. He went to Paris
Paris
to study medicine , graduating in 1770. He was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826. His son Adrien-Henri also became a botanist. In his study of flowering plants, Genera plantarum (1789), Jussieu adopted a methodology based on the use of multiple characters to define groups, an idea derived from naturalist Michel Adanson
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Jan Svatopluk Presl
JAN SVATOPLUK PRESL (4 September 1791 – 6 April 1849) was a Bohemian natural scientist. He was the brother of botanist Karel Bořivoj Presl (1794–1852). The Czech Botanical Society commemorated the two brothers by naming its principal publication Preslia (founded in 1914). He is the author of Czech scientific terminology of various branches of science, including the Czech chemical nomenclature . He was the co-author of an important Czech taxonomic work, O Prirozenosti Rostlin . CONTENTS * 1 Selected publications * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links SELECTED PUBLICATIONS * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820). O Prirozenosti Rostlin. Prague: Krala Wiljma Endersa. * Berchtold, Friedrich von ; Presl, Jan Svatopluk (1820–1835). O Prirozenosti Rostlin aneb rostlinář. Prague: Jos Krause
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Cretaceous
The CRETACEOUS ( /krɪˈteɪʃəs/ , kri-TAY-shəs ) is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 145 million years ago (mya ) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period 66 mya. It is the last period of the Mesozoic Era . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period is usually abbreviated K, for its German translation Kreide (chalk). The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
was a period with a relatively warm climate , resulting in high eustatic sea levels that created numerous shallow inland seas . These oceans and seas were populated with now-extinct marine reptiles , ammonites and rudists , while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land. During this time, new groups of mammals and birds , as well as flowering plants , appeared
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Friedrich Von Berchtold
Count
Count
FRIEDRICH CARL EUGEN VSEMIR VON BERCHTOLD, baron von Ungarschitz (Czech : Bedřich Karel Eugen Všemír Berchtold hrabě z Uherčic) (25 October 1781 – 3 April 1876), was a German-speaking Bohemian physician and botanist from Austrian descent. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Selected publications * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Bibliography BIOGRAPHYBerchtold was born in Stráž nad Nežárkou (German : Platz an der Naser) (now District Jindřichův Hradec ), in the Austrian Empire. He graduated from medical school in 1804, after which he practiced medicine and devoted much of his time to botany and natural history . He eventually abandoned regular medical practice and travelled throughout Europe, the Middle East
Middle East
and Brazil
Brazil

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Jurassic
The JURASSIC ( /dʒʊˈræsɪk/ ; from Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic
Triassic
Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 145 Mya. The Jurassic
Jurassic
constituted the middle period of the Mesozoic Era , also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event . Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian/ Toarcian event in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
and Roderick Murchison , who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian systems, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian
Silurian
systems, and placed them in a system of their own
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Cambrian
The CAMBRIAN Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/ ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established (as “Cambrian series”) by Adam Sedgwick , who named it after Cambria , the Latinised form of Cymru, the Welsh name for Wales
Wales
, where Britain's Cambrian
Cambrian
rocks are best exposed
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest part of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Megaannum
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Triassic
The TRIASSIC ( /traɪˈæsɪk/ ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.902 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya . The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic Era . Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events . The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event , which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs , first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic
Jurassic
Period
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