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Mali Federation
The Mali
Mali
Federation
Federation
(French: Fédération du Mali) was a federation in West Africa
West Africa
linking the French colonies of Senegal
Senegal
and the Sudanese Republic
Republic
(or French Sudan) for a period of only two months in 1960.[1] It was founded on 4 April 1959 as a territory with self-rule within the French Community
French Community
and became independent after negotiations with France
France
on 20 June 1960
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Gendarmerie
A gendarmerie or gendarmery (/dʒɛnˈdɑːrməri/ or /ʒɑːnˈdɑːrməri/) is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Federalism
Federalism
Federalism
is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system
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East African Federation
The East African Federation (Swahili: Shirikisho la Afrika Mashariki) is a proposed political union of the six sovereign states of the East African Community – Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda – as a single federated sovereign state.[3] As of 2017, six states have expressed support for the union, but negotiations continue concerning issues such as the extent of members' sovereignty and timing of implementation.[4]Contents1 Features 2 Timeline 3 1960s Proposal 4 See also 5 References 6 SourcesFeatures[edit] At 1,820,664 square kilometres (702,962 sq mi), the East African Federation would be the fourth-largest country in Africa and 17th-largest in the world
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Charles De Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (French: [ʃaʁl də ɡol] ( listen); 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance
French Resistance
against Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in World War II
World War II
and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France. In 1958, he came out of retirement when appointed Prime Minister of France
Prime Minister of France
by President René Coty. He was asked to rewrite the Constitution of France
France
and founded the Fifth Republic after approval by referendum. He was elected President of France
President of France
later that year, a position he was reelected to in 1965 and held until his resignation in 1969. He twice served as ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra
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Djibo Bakary
Djibo Bakary (1922 – 16 April 1998) was a socialist politician and important figure in the independence movement of Niger. Bakary was the first Nigerien to hold local executive power since the beginning of French colonialism. From 20 May 1957 to 14 December 1958, Bakary held the position of Vice President of the Council of Government and from 26 July 1958 to 10 October 1958, Bakary was the President of the Government Council of Niger
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Mamadou Dia
Mamadou Dia (18 July 1910 – 25 January 2009)[1] was a Senegalese politician who served as the first Prime Minister of Senegal
Prime Minister of Senegal
from 1957 until 1962, when he was forced to resign and was subsequently imprisoned amidst allegations that he was planning to stage a military coup to overthrow President Léopold Sédar Senghor.Contents1 Biography 2 Bibliography 3 Filmography 4 Writings 5 External links 6 See also 7 ReferencesBiography[edit] Mamadou Dia was born in Khombole, Senegal
Senegal
on July 18, 1910. He was educated at École William Ponty. Dia started life in politics as a leader in the Afrique occidentale française (AOF). Dia served in the French Senate
French Senate
from 1948 to 1956 and the French National Assembly
French National Assembly
from 1956 to 1958
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Marabout
A marabout (Arabic: مُرابِط‎, translit. murābiṭ, lit. 'one who is attached/garrisoned') is a Muslim religious leader and teacher[1] in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb. The marabout is often a scholar of the Qur'an, or religious teacher. Others may be wandering holy men who survive on alms, Sufi Murshids ("Guides"), or leaders of religious communities
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Socialist Party Of Senegal
The Socialist Party of Senegal
Senegal
(Parti Socialiste du Sénégal, PS) is a political party in Senegal. It was the ruling party in Senegal
Senegal
from independence in 1960 until 2000. Ousmane Tanor Dieng
Ousmane Tanor Dieng
has been the First Secretary of the party since 1996. The best-known figure of the PS was Léopold Sédar Senghor, the first President of Senegal. In the 2000 presidential election, the party's candidate, long-time president Abdou Diouf, was defeated by the leader of the Senegalese Democratic Party, Abdoulaye Wade, in a second round of voting
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Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally
The Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally (French: Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Démocratique Africain) was a political party in Mali. History[edit] The party was formed in 1945 by Mamadou Konaté and Modibo Keita under the name Sudanese Bloc (Bloc Soudanais). The following year, they affiliated themselves with the African Democratic Rally (RDA), the interterritorial coalition of anti-colonial political parties active in French West Africa. The 1957 elections saw the US-RDA win 57 of the 70 seats. Shortly after the elections, the Union of the Populations of Bandiagara merged into the US-RDA, giving it a total of 64 seats.[1] When Konaté died in 1958, Keita gained full control of the party. The 1959 elections saw the US-RDA win all 80 seats in the Legislative Assembly, and it became the sole legal party the following year. Elections were held in 1964, but with no opposition, the party retained all 80 seats. Following a coup in 1968 by Moussa Traoré, the party was banned
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French Dahomey
French Dahomey
Dahomey
was a French colony of and a part of French West Africa from 1904 to 1958.[1] After World War II, by the establishment of the French Fourth Republic
French Fourth Republic
in 1947, Dahomey
Dahomey
became part of the French Union with an increased autonomy. On 11 December 1958, the French Fifth Republic was established and the French Union
French Union
became the French Community
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African Regroupment Party
The African Regroupment Party (French: Parti du Regroupement Africain, PRA) was a political party in the French African colonies. Formation[edit] The PRA came into being at a meeting in Paris
Paris
on March 26, 1958, months before the French Community
French Community
would replace the French Union. The main founding organizations were the African Convention and the African Socialist Movement
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Guinea
Coordinates: 11°N 10°W / 11°N 10°W / 11; -10 Republic
Republic
of Guinea République de Guinée (French)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Travail, Justice, Solidarité" (French) "Work, Justice, Solidarity"Anthem: Liberté  (French) FreedomLocation of  Guinea  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)Capital and largest city Conakry 9°31′N 13°42′W / 9.517°N 13.700°W / 9.517; -13.700Official languages
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May 1958 Crisis
1960s Algiers
Algiers
putsch Bab El Oued Bouzegza Ambush of Palestro Operation Blue Bird Bab El Bekkouche Boutaleb Boukerker Bukhail Nasinsa Ouled Rashache Flawcen Ouled Bouaachra Kef Lakhdar Ouled Sinan Guergour Kef AfoulCommunists gathering in East Berlin
East Berlin
at the Deutsche Sporthalle of Karl-Marx-Allee, in "solidarity with the French people against Fascism"The May 1958 crisis (or Algiers
Algiers
putsch or the coup of 13 May) was a political crisis in France
France
during the turmoil of the Algerian War
Algerian War
of Independence (1954–62) which led to the return of Charles de Gaulle to political responsibilities after a twelve-year absence
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