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Malay Language
Latin ( Malay alphabet ) Arabic script ( Jawi alphabet ) Thai alphabet (in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet , Kawi alphabet , Rencong alphabet SIGNED FORMS Manually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa
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Malayan Languages
The MALAY or MALAYAN LANGUAGES are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei
Brunei
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines
Philippines
. They have traditionally been classified as Malay, Para-Malay, and Aboriginal Malay, but this reflects geography and ethnicity rather than a proper linguistic classification. The Malayan languages are mutually unintelligible to varying extents, though the distinction between language and dialect is unclear in many cases. Para-Malay includes the Malayan languages of Sumatra
Sumatra
. They are: Minangkabau , Central Malay (Bengkulu), Pekal , Musi (Palembang), Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia), and Duano’ . Aboriginal Malay are the Malayan languages spoken by the Orang Asli ( Proto-Malay ) in Malaya . They are Jakun , Orang Kanaq , Orang Seletar , and Temuan
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Malayalam
India
India
: * Kerala
Kerala
(State), * Lakshadweep (Territory ) * Mahé , Puducherry (Territory ) REGULATED BY Kerala
Kerala
Sahitya Akademi , Government of Kerala
Kerala
LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 ml ISO 639-2 mal ISO 639-3 mal GLOTTOLOG mala1464 LINGUASPHERE 49-EBE-ba Malayalam-speaking area Malayalam
Malayalam
is written in a non- Latin
Latin
script . Malayalam
Malayalam
text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin
Latin
script according to the ISO 15919 standard.MALAYALAM (/mæləˈjɑːləm/ ; മലയാളം, _Malayāḷam_ ? ) is a Dravidian language spoken in India
India
, predominantly in the state of Kerala
Kerala
. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
India
and was designated as a Classical Language in India
India
in 2013. It was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Indonesian SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Indonesian * Malay * English * Dutch * Javanese * 700 others RELIGI
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Indonesian Language
INDONESIAN (_bahasa Indonesia_ ) is the official language of Indonesia . It is a standardized register of Malay , an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in any of more than 700 indigenous local languages ; examples include Javanese , Sundanese and Balinese , which are commonly used at home and within the local community. However, most formal education , and nearly all national mass media , governance , administration , judiciary , and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. The Indonesian name for the language is _bahasa Indonesia_ (literally "the language of Indonesia"). This term is also occasionally found in English and other languages
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Malaysia
Coordinates : 2°30′N 112°30′E / 2.500°N 112.500°E / 2.500; 112.500 Malaysia Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu" "Unity Is Strength" ANTHEM: _ Negaraku _ _My Country_ CAPITAL Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 Putrajaya
Putrajaya
(administrative) 2°56′35″N 101°41′58″E / 2.9430952°N 101.699373°E / 2.9430952; 101.699373 LARGEST CITY Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
3°8′N 101°41′E / 3.133°N 101.683°E / 3.133; 101.683 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
OFFICIAL SCRIPT Malay (Latin) alphabet RECOGNISED LANGUAGES English ETHNIC GROUPS ( ) * 50.1% Malay * 22.6% Chinese * 11.8% Indigenous * 6.7% Indian * 8.8% other RELIGION * Official: * 61.3% Islam (Sunni ) * Other religions: * 19.8% Buddhist * 9.2% Christian * 6.2% Hindu * 3.4% other DEMONYM Malaysian GOVERNMENT Federal parliamentary elective constitutional monarchy • YANG DI-PERTUAN AGONG Muhammad V • PRIME MINISTER Najib Razak
Najib Razak
• CHIEF JUSTICE Md Raus Sharif • PRESIDENT OF THE DEWAN NEGARA S
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Malaysian Language
The MALAYSIAN LANGUAGE (Malay : Bahasa Malaysia), or STANDARD MALAY (Malay : Bahasa Melayu Baku) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia. Constitutionally, however, the official language of Malaysia
Malaysia
is Malay, but the government from time to time refers to it as Malaysian. Malaysian is a standardised register of the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay . It is spoken by much of the Malaysian population as a first language . It is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools. CONTENTS * 1 Status * 2 Writing system
Writing system
* 3 Borrowed words * 4 Colloquial and contemporary usage * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STATUSArticle 152 of the Federation designates Malay as the official language. Between 1986 and 2007, the official term Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
was replaced by "Bahasa Melayu". Today, to recognise that Malaysia
Malaysia
is composed of many ethnic groups (and not only the ethnic Malays), the term Bahasa Malaysia
Malaysia
has once again become the government's preferred designation for the "Bahasa Kebangsaan" (National Language) and the "Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu" (unifying language/lingua franca ). The language is sometimes simply referred to as Bahasa or BM. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts
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Singapore
SINGAPORE (/ˈsɪŋɡəpɔːr/ (_ listen )), officially the REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE, sometimes referred to as the Lion City_, the _Garden City_ or the _ Little Red Dot _, is a sovereign city-state in Southeast Asia . It lies one degree (137 km) north of the equator , at the southern tip of peninsular Malaysia , with Indonesia 's Riau Islands to the south. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets . Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23% (130 km2), and its greening policy has covered the densely populated island with tropical flora, parks and gardens . Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore in 1819 as a trading post of the East India Company ; after its collapse and the eventual establishment of the British Raj , the islands were ceded to Britain and became part of its Straits Settlements in 1826. During the Second World War , Singapore was occupied by Japan . It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia , but separated two years later over ideological differences , becoming a sovereign nation in 1965
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Brunei
Coordinates : 4°30′N 114°40′E / 4.500°N 114.667°E / 4.500; 114.667 Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace _Negara Brunei
Brunei
Darussalam_ (Rumi ) نڬارا بروني دارالسلام (Jawi ) _ Flag Crest MOTTO: * الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى * Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah_ * "Always in service with God's guidance" ANTHEM: * _ Allah Peliharakan Sultan _ * _God Bless the Sultan_ Location of Brunei
Brunei
(green) in
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East Timor
EAST TIMOR (/ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔːr/ (_ listen )) or TIMOR-LESTE (/tiˈmɔːr ˈlɛʃteɪ/ ; Tetum : Timór Lorosa'e_), officially the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF TIMOR-LESTE (Portuguese : _República Democrática de Timor-Leste_, Tetum : _Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste_), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia . It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor , the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco , and Oecusse , an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor . The country's size is about 15,410 km2 (5,400 sq mi). East Timor was colonised by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until 28 November 1975, when the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor (FRETILIN) declared the territory's independence. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. The Indonesian occupation of East Timor was characterised by a highly violent decades-long conflict between separatist groups (especially FRETILIN) and the Indonesian military
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Thailand
Coordinates : 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3 Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai ) _Ratcha-anachak Thai_ _ Flag Emblem ANTHEM: Phleng Chat Thai _ (English: "Thai National Anthem") ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Sansoen Phra Barami
Sansoen Phra Barami
_ (English: "Glorify His prestige") Location of Thailand (green) in ASEAN
ASEAN
(dark grey) – Capital and largest city Bangkok
Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Thai SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Isan * Kam Mueang
Mueang
* Pak Tai ETHNIC GROUPS (2009; 2011 :95–99)* Thai ∟ 34.1% Central Thai ∟ 24.9% Khon
Khon
Isan ∟ 9.9% Khon
Khon
Muang ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai :95–99 * 14% Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
* 12% Others (incl
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Pattani Malay
KELANTAN-PATTANI MALAY, often referred to in Thailand
Thailand
as YAWI (in Thai) or JAWI (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan
Kelantan
as Baso Kelate, is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan
Kelantan
and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand
Thailand
. It is the primary spoken language of Thai Malays
Thai Malays
, but is also used as a lingua franca by ethnic Southern Thais in rural areas, Muslim and non-Muslim, and the samsam, a mostly Thai-speaking population of mixed Malay and Thai ancestry. Kelantan– Pattani
Pattani
Malay is a highly divergent dialect of Malay because of the geographical isolation of the dialect from the rest of the Malay world by high mountains, deep rainforest and the South China Sea. In Thailand, it is influenced by Thai. Several varieties exist, but they are mutually comprehensible to the extent that native speakers of Pattani
Pattani
and Kelantanese often cannot differentiate each other. Kelantanese– Pattani
Pattani
Malay is distinct enough that radio broadcasts in Standard Malay cannot be understood easily by native speakers of Kelantanese– Pattani
Pattani
Malay who are not taught the standard language, for example, those in Thailand
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Cocos (Keeling) Islands
The TERRITORY OF COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean , comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia
Australia
and Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
. The territory's dual name (official since 1955) reflects that the islands have historically been known as either the COCOS ISLANDS or the KEELING ISLANDS. The territory consists of two atolls made up of 27 coral islands , of which only two – West Island and Home Island – are inhabited. The population of around 600 people consists mainly of Cocos Malays , who practise Sunni Islam and speak a dialect of Malay as their first language. The territory is administered by the Australian federal government's Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development
, and together with Christmas Island forms the Australian Indian Ocean Territories administrative unit. However, the islanders do have a degree of self-government through the local shire council . Many public services – including health, education, and policing – are provided by the state of Western Australia
Australia
, and Western Australian law applies except where the federal government has determined otherwise
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Autonomous Region In Muslim Mindanao
The AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO (Filipino : _Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao_, Arabic
Arabic
: الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو‎‎ _Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu_; abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines
Philippines
, located in the Mindanao island group of the Philippines
Philippines
, that consists of five predominantly Muslim
Muslim
provinces : Basilan
Basilan
(except Isabela City ), Lanao del Sur , Maguindanao , Sulu
Sulu
and Tawi-Tawi
Tawi-Tawi
. It is the only region that has its own government. The region's _de facto_ seat of government is Cotabato City , although this self-governing city is outside of its jurisdiction. The ARMM previously included the province of Shariff Kabunsuan
Shariff Kabunsuan
until 16 July 2008, when Shariff Kabunsuan
Shariff Kabunsuan
ceased to exist as a province after the Supreme Court of the Philippines
Philippines
declared the "Muslim Mindanao
Mindanao
Autonomy Act 201", which created it, unconstitutional in _ Sema vs. COMELEC _
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people. There are also many dead and extinct languages, as well as some that are still insufficiently studied to be classified, or are even unknown outside their respective speech communities. Membership of languages in a language family is established by comparative linguistics . Sister languages are said to have a "genetic" or "genealogical" relationship. The latter term is older
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Austronesian Languages
The AUSTRONESIAN LANGUAGES are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia , Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean , with a few members in continental Asia . Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people, making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers, behind only the Indo-European languages , the Sino-Tibetan languages , the Niger-Congo languages , and the Afroasiatic languages . It is on par with Indo-European , Niger–Congo , and Afroasiatic as one of the best-established language families. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese , and Filipino (Tagalog ). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family. Otto Dempwolff was the first researcher to extensively explore Austronesian using the comparative method . Another German, Wilhelm Schmidt , coined the German word _austronesisch_ which comes from Latin _auster_ "south wind" plus Greek _nêsos_ "island". The name _Austronesian_ was formed from the same roots. The family is aptly named, as the vast majority of Austronesian languages are spoken on islands: only a few languages, such as Malay and the Chamic languages , are indigenous to mainland Asia
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