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Malay Language
Latin (Malay alphabet) Arabic script
Arabic script
(Jawi alphabet)[3] Thai alphabet
Thai alphabet
(in Thailand) Malay Braille Historically Pallava alphabet, Kawi alphabet, Rencong alphabetSigned formsManually Coded Malay Sistem Isyarat Bahasa IndonesiaOfficial status
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Thai Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Autonomous Region In Muslim Mindanao
The Autonomous Region in Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao
Mindanao
(Filipino: Awtonomong Rehiyon sa Muslim
Muslim
Mindanao,[4] Arabic: الحكم الذاتي الاقليمي لمسلمي مندناو‎ Al-ḥukm adh-dhātiyy al-'aqlīmiyy limuslimiyy mindanāu;[5] abbreviated ARMM) is an autonomous region of the Philippines, located in the Mindanao
Mindanao
island group of the Philippines, that consists of five predominantly Muslim provinces: Basilan
Basilan
(except Isabela City), Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu
Sulu
and Tawi-Tawi
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Pallava Alphabet
The Pallava script, a Brahmic script, was developed under the Pallava dynasty of Southern India around the 6th century AD. Southeast Asian scripts such as Grantha, Javanese,[1] Kawi, Baybayin, Mon, Burmese,[2] Khmer,[3] Lanna, Thai,[4] Lao,[5] Sinhalese,[6] and the New Tai Lue alphabets are either direct or indirect derivations from the Kadamba-Pallava alphabet.[7]Contents1 Form1.1 Consonants 1.2 Independent Vowels2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksForm[edit] Pallava script
Pallava script
at the 8th century Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu.The form shown here is based on examples from the 7th century AD. Letters labeled * have uncertain sound value, as they have little occurrence in Southeast Asia. Consonants[edit] Each consonant has an inherent /a/, which will be sounded if no vowel sign is attached
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Latin Script
Latin
Latin
or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans. Several Latin-script alphabets exist which differ in graphemes, collation and phonetic values from the classical Latin
Latin
alphabet. The Latin
Latin
script is the basis of the International Phonetic Alphabet and the 26 most widespread letters are the letters contained in the ISO basic Latin
Latin
alphabet. Latin
Latin
script is the basis for the largest number of alphabets of any writing system[1] and is the most widely adopted writing system in the world (commonly used by about 70% of the world's population)
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Writing System
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication. While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages, writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer.[1] The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium, such as paper or electronic storage, although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display, on a blackboard, in sand, or by skywriting. The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets, syllabaries, or logographies. Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Kawi Alphabet
Aksara Kawi (from Sanskrit: कवि "kavi" lit. "poet")[1] or Aksara Jawa Kuna (" Old Javanese script") is the name given to the writing system originating in Java
Java
and used across much of Maritime Southeast Asia from the 8th century to around 1500 AD.[2] It is a direct derivation of the Pallava script
Pallava script
brought by traders from the ancient Tamil Kingdom of the south Indian Pallava dynasty
Pallava dynasty
in India,[3] primarily used for writing Tamil, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Old Javanese language. Kawi is the ancestor of traditional Indonesian scripts, such as Javanese and Balinese, as well as traditional Philippine scripts such as Luzon Kavi the ancient scripts of Laguna Copper plate Inscriptions 822A.D
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ISO 639-2
 ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 464 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes. The US Library of Congress
Library of Congress
is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA)
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Malay Braille
The goal of braille uniformity is to unify the braille alphabets of the world as much as possible, so that literacy in one braille alphabet readily transfers to another.[1] Unification was first achieved by a convention of the International Congress on Work for the Blind in 1878, where it was decided to replace the mutually incompatible national conventions of the time with the French values of the basic Latin alphabet, both for languages which use Latin-based alphabets and, through their Latin equivalents, for languages which use other scripts. However, the unification did not address letters beyond these 26, leaving French and German Braille
Braille
partially incompatible, and as braille spread to new languages with new needs, national conventions again became disparate
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.[1] ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages
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Language Family
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree, or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy. Linguists therefore describe the daughter languages within a language family as being genetically related.[1] According to Ethnologue
Ethnologue
the 7,099 living human languages are distributed in 141 different language families.[2] A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Badan Pengembangan Dan Pembinaan Bahasa
The Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa (The Language Development and Fostering Agency), formerly Pusat Bahasa (Language Center) is the institution responsible for designing and regulating the growth of the Indonesian language in Indonesia. Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa is currently under Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic of Indonesia. History[edit] Founded in 1947 the Instituut voor Taal en Cultuur Onderzoek (Language and Culture Research Institute) for (ITCO), was a part of the University of Indonesia. The institute was headed by Prof. Dr. Gerrit Jan Held. Parallel to this, the newly formed Indonesian government, having just celebrated their independence in 1945, created Balai Bahasa (roughly translated as "Home of Language") in March 1948
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Thailand
Coordinates: 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai) Ratcha-anachak ThaiFlagEmblemAnthem: Phleng Chat Thai (English: "Thai National Anthem")Royal anthem: Sansoen Phra Barami (English: "Glorify His prestige")Location of  Thailand  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bangkok 13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483Official languages Thai[1]Spoken languagesIsan Kam Mueang Pak TaiEthnic groups (2009;[6] 2011[3]:95–99)Thai  ∟ 34.1% Central Thai  ∟ 24.9% Khon
Khon
Isan[2]  ∟ 9.9% Khon
Khon
Muang  ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai 14% Thai Chinese 12% Others (incl
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East Timor
East Timor
Timor
(/ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔːr/ ( listen)) or Timor-Leste (/tiˈmɔːr ˈlɛʃteɪ/; Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic
Republic
of Timor-Leste[11] (Portuguese: República Democrática de Timor-Leste,[12] Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste),[13] is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.[14] It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island surrounded by Indonesian West Timor. Australia
Australia
is the country's southern neighbor, separated by the Timor Sea
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List Of Language Regulators
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors. Many world languages have one or more language academies
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Manually Coded Language
Manually coded languages are not themselves languages but are representations of oral languages in a gestural-visual form; that is, signed versions of oral languages (signed languages). Unlike the sign languages that have evolved naturally in Deaf communities, which have distinct spatial structures, these manual codes (MCL) are the conscious invention of deaf and hearing educators, and mostly follow the grammar of the oral language—or, more precisely, of the written form of the oral language
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