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Majordomo
A MAJORDOMO is a person who speaks, makes arrangements, or takes charge for another. Typically, the term refers to the highest (major) person of a household (domūs or domicile) staff, a head servant who acts on behalf of the owner of a large or significant residence. Similar terms include castellan , concierge , chamberlain , seneschal , mayor of the palace , maître d\'hôtel , head butler , and steward . The term also refers, more informally, to someone who oversees the day-to-day responsibilities of a business enterprise. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Examples in fiction * 3 See also * 4 References ETYMOLOGYThe origin is from maior domūs ( Latin , "principal" and "house"), and it was borrowed into English from Spanish "mayordomo" or obsolete Italian "maiordomo". Also found as French "majordome", modern Italian "maggiordomo", Portuguese and Galician "mordomo", in Romanian and Catalan "majordom". EXAMPLES IN FICTIONIn the 1991 Disney animated film Beauty and the Beast the character of Cogsworth, has the position of majordomo in the castle, alongside Lumiere who is the castle's Maître d\'hôtel . In the 1994 film The Lion King the character Zazu serves as majordomo (or as he introduces himself, "majordodo") to Mufasa and later his son Simba
Simba
after he became king
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Majordomo (software)
MAJORDOMO is a mailing list manager (MLM) developed by Brent Chapman of Great Circle Associates. It is written in Perl and works in conjunction with sendmail on UNIX
UNIX
and related operating systems. The name majordomo is derived from the Latin
Latin
"major domus" meaning "master of the house"; in English, the word is used to refer to a large household's chief servant. The current version of Majordomo is 1.94.5, released 19 January 2000. The official website warns that it will not work with Perl versions 5.001 and 5.005_01 specifically. It recommends to use Perl 4.036 or the latest version available. Support for Perl 4.036 may not be kept for the future. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Majordomo 2 * 2 Licensing * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYMajordomo has been in widespread use since 1992, predating the popularity of the web browser , in an era when many people had access to email but didn't have World Wide Web access. As a result, tasks such as subscribing and unsubscribing are only handled by sending mail messages. There are front-ends, such as MajorCool, to provide a web interface. Many mailing lists still use Majordomo. Before Majordomo, mailing lists were maintained manually, with a list owner adding and removing participants by editing a text file
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Mayordomo
MAYORDOMO or CHOCOLATE MAYORDOMO is a brand of Mexican chocolate para mesa (English: "table chocolate") produced by the company Chocolate Mayordomo
Mayordomo
De Oaxaca, S. De R.L. De C.V., and based in Oaxaca
Oaxaca
, Oaxaca , Mexico
Mexico
. The company manufactures mole sauce in addition to table chocolate. Unlike many other commercial chocolates, Mayordomo
Mayordomo
includes only four ingredients, sugar , roasted cacao beans , almonds and cinnamon . These ingredients are ground and blended forming a paste that is pressed into bars and discs. Due to its undissolved granulated sugar , and its rough and gritty texture, the table chocolate is not meant to be eaten like a chocolate bar , although Mayordomo
Mayordomo
bars can be eaten out of hand. The bars and discs are primarily used to make hot cocoa in traditional Mexican form. Chocolate Mayordomo
Mayordomo
is prepared on the stove by dissolving the squares in hot milk or water, then whisking the cocoa with a molinillo or wire whisk. In Mexico, in the traditional Aztec and Mayan form, chile peppers are added to make both sweet and savory dishes. SEE ALSO * List of chocolate beverages * Drink portal REFERENCES * ^ A B C Brownson, JeanMarie (1994-02-17). "Oaxaca\'s History Is Linked To Its Luscious Chocolate". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved 2012-02-13
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Castellan
A CASTELLAN was the governor or captain of a castellany and its castle . The word stems from the Latin Castellanus, derived from castellum "castle". Sometimes also known as a CONSTABLE, GOVERNOR of the castle district or CAPTAIN, the Constable of the Tower of London is, in fact, a form of castellan. A castellan was almost always male, but could occasionally be female, as when, in 1194, Beatrice inherited her father's castellany of Bourbourg upon the death of her brother, Roger. CONTENTS * 1 Initial power * 2 Duties * 2.1 Castellans and Jews * 3 Regional differences * 3.1 France * 3.2 Germany * 3.3 Hungary * 3.4 Jerusalem * 3.5 Malta * 3.6 Poland * 3.7 Portugal * 4 Castellany * 5 See also * 6 References INITIAL POWERAfter the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
, many tribes migrated into western Europe , causing strife and war. The answer to recurrent invasion was to create fortified areas which evolved into castles . Some leaders gained control of several areas, each with a castle. The problem lay in exerting proper control and authority in each area when a leader could only be in one place at a time. To answer this, lords gave their trusted vassals direct control of a castle, reporting to the lord only
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Concierge
A CONCIERGE (French pronunciation: ​ ) is an employee of an apartment building , hotel , or office building. A modern concierge may also serve as a personal lifestyle manager , like a secretary or an adjutant . CONTENTS * 1 Duties and functions * 2 Hotels * 3 Concierge services * 4 Etymology * 5 Popular culture * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DUTIES AND FUNCTIONSThe concierge serves guests of an apartment building, hotel, or office building with duties similar to those of a receptionist . The position can also be maintained by a security guard over the late night shift . A similar position, known as the portero, exists in Spanish-speaking regions. In medieval times, the concierge was an officer of the king who was charged with executing justice, with the help of his bailiffs . Later on in the 18th century, the concierge was a high official of the kingdom, appointed by the king to maintain order and oversee the police and prisoner records. In 19th-century and early 20th-century apartment buildings, particularly in Paris , the concierge was known as a "Suisse", as the post was often filled by Swiss. He often had a small apartment on the ground floor, called la loge, and was able to monitor all comings and goings. However, such settings are now extremely rare; most concierges in small or middle-sized buildings have been replaced by the part-time services of door-staff
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Chamberlain (office)
A CHAMBERLAIN ( Medieval Latin : _cambellanus_ or _cambrerius_, with charge of treasury _camerarius_) is a senior royal official in charge of managing a royal household . Historically, the chamberlain superintends the arrangement of domestic affairs and was often also charged with receiving and paying out money kept in the royal chamber. The position was usually honoured upon a high-ranking member of the nobility (nobleman) or the clergy , often a royal favourite . Roman emperors appointed this officer under the title of _cubicularius _. The papal chamberlain of the Pope
Pope
enjoys very extensive powers, having the revenues of the papal household under his charge. As a sign of their dignity, they bore a key, which in the seventeenth century was often silvered, and actually fitted the door-locks of chamber rooms, since the eighteenth century it had turned into a merely symbolic, albeit splendid, rank -insignia of gilded bronze. In many countries there are ceremonial posts associated with the household of the sovereign
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Seneschal
A SENESCHAL (/ˈsɛnəʃəl/ ) was an administrative officer in the houses of important nobles in the Middle Ages and early Modern period , equivalent to a steward or stolnik . In a medieval noble household a seneschal was in charge of domestic arrangements and the administration of servants. In the French administrative system of the Middle Ages, the seneschal (French : _sénéchal_) was also a royal officer in charge of justice and control of the administration in southern provinces, equivalent to the northern French bailiff (_bailli _). CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 In France * 3 See also * 4 References * 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography * 5 External links ORIGINThe term, first attested in 1350–1400, was borrowed from Anglo-Norman _seneschal_ "steward", from Old Dutch *_siniscalc_ "senior retainer" (attested in Latin _siniscalcus_ (692 AD), Old High German _senescalh_), a compound of *_sini_- (cf. Gothic _sineigs_ "old", _sinista_ "oldest") and _scalc_ "servant", ultimately a calque of Late Latin _senior scholaris_ "senior guard". The _scholae _ in the late Roman Empire referred to the imperial guard, divided into senior (_seniores_) and junior (_juniores_) units. The captain of the guard was known as _comes scholarum_. When Germanic tribes took over the Empire, the _scholae_ were merged or replaced with the Germanic king's warband (cf
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Mayor Of The Palace
Under the Merovingian dynasty , the MAYOR OF THE PALACE (Latin : _maior palatii_) or MAJORDOMO (_maior domus_) was the manager of the household of the Frankish king . The office existed from the sixth century, and during the seventh it evolved into the "power behind the throne " in the northeastern kingdom of Austrasia . In 751, the mayor of the palace, Pepin the Short , orchestrated the deposition of the king, Childeric III , and was crowned in his place. The mayor of the palace held and wielded the real and effective power to make decisions affecting the kingdom, while the kings had been reduced to performing merely ceremonial functions, which made them little more than figureheads (_rois fainéants _, "do-nothing kings"). The office may be compared to that of the peshwa , shogun or prime minister , all of which have similarly been the real powers behind some ceremonial monarchs. In Austrasia, the mayoral office became hereditary in the family of the Pippinids . In 687, after victory over the western kingdom of Neustria , the Austrasian mayor, Pippin of Herstal , took the title Duke of the Franks to signify his augmented rule. His son and successor, Charles Martel , ceased bothering with the _façade_ of a king, and the last four years of his reign (743–47) were an interregnum
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Maître D'hôtel
The MAîTRE D\'HôTEL (French: "master of hotel", pronounced ), HEAD WAITER, HOST, WAITER CAPTAIN or MAîTRE D\' (US : /ˈmeɪtər diː/ ) manages the public part , or "front of the house", of a formal restaurant . The responsibilities of a maître d'hôtel generally include supervising the waiting staff , welcoming guests and assigning tables to them, taking reservations and ensuring that guests are satisfied. In large organizations—such as hotels, or cruise ships with multiple restaurants—the maître d'hôtel is often responsible for the overall dining experience including room service and buffet services , while head waiters or supervisors are responsible for the specific restaurant or dining room they work in. In restaurants that partly prepare food at the table, the maître d’hôtel may be responsible for such operations as boning fish, mixing salads , and flambéing foods. SEE ALSO * Beurre Maître d\'Hôtel , a parsley butter * Brigade de cuisine , a formal back-of-house (kitchen) hierarchy. * Hospitality
Hospitality
* List of restaurant terminology
List of restaurant terminology
* Concierge
Concierge
REFERENCES * ^ LeTrent, Sarah (September 2, 2011). "D mystifying the maître d\'". Eatocracy. Retrieved October 10, 2012. * ^ Bordelon, Grace. "What Is a Waiter Captain?". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 20 April 2017. * ^ Zeldes, Leah A. (October 7, 2009)
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Butler
A BUTLER is a domestic worker in a large household . In great houses , the household is sometimes divided into departments with the butler in charge of the dining room , wine cellar , and pantry . Some also have charge of the entire parlour floor, and housekeepers caring for the entire house and its appearance. A butler is usually male, and in charge of male servants, while a housekeeper is usually a woman, and in charge of female servants. Traditionally, male servants (such as footmen) were rarer and therefore better paid and of higher status than female servants. The butler, as the senior male servant, has the highest servant status. He can also be sometimes used as a chauffeur . In older houses where the butler is the most senior worker, titles such as majordomo , butler administrator, house manager, manservant, staff manager, chief of staff , staff captain, estate manager and head of household staff are sometimes given. The precise duties of the employee will vary to some extent in line with the title given, but perhaps, more importantly in line with the requirements of the individual employer. In the grandest homes or when the employer owns more than one residence, there is sometimes an estate manager of higher rank than the butler. The butler was also the senior steward in a lascar ship's crew
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Steward (office)
A STEWARD is an official who is appointed by the legal ruling monarch to represent them in a country, and may have a mandate to govern it in their name; in the latter case, synonymous with the position of regent , vicegerent , viceroy (for Romance languages ), governor , or deputy (the Roman rector , praefectus or vicarius ). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 British Isles * 3 Low Countries
Low Countries
* 4 Northern Europe * 4.1 Danish Statholder * 4.2 Norwegian Statholder * 5 Southern Europe * 5.1 Ban of Croatia * 5.2 Ban of Bosnia
Bosnia
* 6 Eastern Europe * 7 Freemasonry * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links ETYMOLOGYFrom Old English
Old English
stíweard, stiȝweard, from stiȝ "hall, household" + weard "warden, keeper"; corresponding to Dutch : stadhouder, German Statthalter "place holder", a Germanic parallel to French lieutenant . The Old English
Old English
term stíweard is attested from the 11th century. Its first element is most probably stiȝ- "house, hall" (attested only in composition; its cognate stiȝu is the ancestor of Modern English sty ). Old French estuard and Old Norse stívarðr are adopted from the Old English
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Spanish Language
(see many more ) REGULATED BY Association of Spanish Language Academies ( Real Academia Española and 22 other national Spanish language academies) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 es ISO 639-2 spa ISO 639-3 spa GLOTTOLOG stan1288 LINGUASPHERE 51-AAA-b Spanish language in the world SPANISH (/ˈspænᵻʃ/ (_ listen ); español_ (help ·info )), also called CASTILIAN (/kæˈstɪliən/ (_ listen ), castellano_ (help ·info )), is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese . Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
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Italian Language
ITALIAN (_ italiano_ (help ·info ) or _lingua italiana_ ) is a Romance language . By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian, is the closest to Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy , Switzerland , San Marino , Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia ). It used to have official status in Albania , Malta and Monaco , where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia . It has official minority status in Bosnia and Herzegovina , Croatia , Slovenia and Romania . Many speakers are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages . Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe . It is the third most widely spoken first language in the European Union with 65 million native speakers (13% of the EU population) and it is spoken as a second language by 14 million EU citizens (3%)
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Portuguese Language
PORTUGUESE (_português_ or, in full, _língua portuguesa_) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Brazil
Brazil
, Cape Verde , Portugal
Portugal
, Guinea-Bissau , Mozambique
Mozambique
, Angola
Angola
, and São Tomé and Príncipe . It also has co-official language status in East Timor
East Timor
, Equatorial Guinea and Macau
Macau
. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole speakers are also found in Goa
Goa
, Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
in India; in Batticaloa on the east coast of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
; in the Indonesian island of Flores
Flores
; in Malacca