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Majapahit Empire
The Majapahit
Majapahit
Empire
Empire
(Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Indonesian: Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java
Java
(part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500. Majapahit
Majapahit
reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia
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Indonesian Language
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia
Indonesia
[baˈhasa indoneˈsia]) is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago
Indonesian archipelago
for centuries. Indonesia
Indonesia
is the fourth most populous nation in the world
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Melayu Kingdom
The Melayu Kingdom
Melayu Kingdom
(also known as Malayu, Dharmasraya Kingdom or the Jambi
Jambi
Kingdom; Chinese: 末羅瑜國; pinyin: Mòluóyú Guó, reconstructed Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
pronunciation mat-la-yu kwok)[1][2][3] was a classical Southeast Asian kingdom. The primary sources for much of the information on the kingdom are the New History of the Tang, and the memoirs of the Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing who visited in 671, and states was "absorbed" by Srivijaya
Srivijaya
by 692, but had "broken away" by the end of the eleventh century according to Chao Jukua.[4]:79–80,83,142,179,184 The exact location of the kingdom is the subject of studies among historians
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Prehistoric Indonesia
Prehistoric Indonesia is a prehistoric period in the Indonesian archipelago that spanned from the Pleistocene period to about the 4th century CE when the Kutai people produced the earliest known stone inscriptions in Indonesia.[1] Unlike the clear distinction between prehistoric and historical periods in Europe and the Middle East, the division is muddled in Indonesia. This is mostly because Indonesia's geographical conditions as a vast archipelago caused some parts — especially the interiors of distant islands — to be virtually isolated from the rest of the world. West Java and coastal Eastern Borneo, for example, began their historical periods in the early 4th century, but megalithic culture still flourished and script was unknown in the rest of Indonesia, including in Nias, Batak, and Toraja. The Papuans on the Indonesian part of New Guinea island lived virtually in the stone age until their first contacts with modern world in the early 20th century
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Java Man
Java
Java
Man ( Homo erectus
Homo erectus
erectus; Javanese: Manungsa Jawa; Indonesian: Manusia Jawa) is early human fossils discovered on the island of Java (Indonesia) in 1891 and 1892. Led by Eugène Dubois, the excavation team uncovered a tooth, a skullcap, and a thighbone at Trinil
Trinil
on the banks of the Solo River
Solo River
in East Java. Arguing that the fossils represented the "missing link" between apes and humans, Dubois gave the species the scientific name Anthropopithecus erectus, then later renamed it Pithecanthropus erectus. The fossil aroused much controversy
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Flores Man
Homo
Homo
floresiensis (" Flores
Flores
Man"; nicknamed "hobbit"[1]) is an extinct species in the genus Homo. The remains of an individual that would have stood about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) in height were discovered in 2003 at Liang Bua on the island of Flores
Flores
in Indonesia
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Toba Catastrophe Theory
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba
Lake Toba
in Sumatra, Indonesia. It is one of the Earth's largest known eruptions. The Toba catastrophe theory
Toba catastrophe theory
holds that this event caused a global volcanic winter of six to ten years and possibly a 1,000-year-long cooling episode. In 1993, science journalist Ann Gibbons posited that a population bottleneck occurred in human evolution about 70,000 years ago, and she suggested that this was caused by the eruption. Biologist Michael R. Rampino of New York University
New York University
and volcanologist Stephen Self of the University of Hawaii at Manoa
University of Hawaii at Manoa
support her suggestion. In 1998, the bottleneck theory was further developed by anthropologist Stanley H. Ambrose of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
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Buni Culture
Buni culture is a prehistoric clay pottery culture that flourished in coastal northern West Java, Jakarta and Banten around 400 BC to 100 AD [1] and probably survived until 500 AD. The culture was named after its first discovered archaeological site, Buni village in Babelan, Bekasi, east of Jakarta. Buni culture is known for its peculiar pottery with incised, geometrical decorations, and the fact that it yielded the first Indian rouletted wares recorded from Southeast Asia.[2] Clay potteries were later developed with evidence found in Anyer to Cirebon. Artifacts such as food and drink containers, dated from 400 BC to AD 100 have been found, mostly as burial gifts.[1] Buni clay pottery culture bears similarities with Sa Huỳnh culture in Vietnam. Pottery artefacts were discovered such as clay dishes, pots, water jars and other daily utensils. Megalithic culture can also be found, such as beads as burial gifts, and also menhir and stone table
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Salakanagara
Salakanagara kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java[1] This Kingdom existed between 130-362 AD. A relatively modern literature in the 17th century Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara describes salakanagara as being founded by an Indian merchant. However no historical records affirms this modern writeup on the ancient kingdom.Contents1 Historiography 2 History 3 Notes 4 ReferencesHistoriography[edit] The history of Salakanagara is quite mysterious as the historical and archaeological sources are scarce. Compared to its successor, Tarumanagara, the kingdom did not leave any local tangible historical records and relics such as inscriptions or temples ruins
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Kutai
Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan
in Indonesia
Indonesia
on Borneo and also name of the native people on the region with a language of the correlating name and their history. Today the name is preserved in the names of three regencies in East Kalimantan, the Kutai
Kutai
Kartanegara Regency, the West Kutai Regency
West Kutai Regency
and the East Kutai
Kutai
Regency
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Tarumanagara Kingdom
Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianised kingdom, whose 5th-century ruler, Purnawarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java
Java
island. The kingdom was located not far from modern Jakarta, and according to Tugu inscription Purnavarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement
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Kalingga Kingdom
Kalingga (Javanese: Karajan Kalingga; 訶陵 Hēlíng or 闍婆 Dūpó in Chinese sources[1]) was the 6th century Indianized kingdom on the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia. It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai
Kutai
and Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history.Contents1 Historiography 2 History 3 Inscriptions 4 ReferencesHistoriography[edit] The archaeological findings and historical records from this period are scarce, and the exact location of kingdom's capital is unknown. It is thought to be somewhere between present-day Pekalongan
Pekalongan
or Jepara
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Srivijaya
Srivijaya
Srivijaya
(also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese: ᮞᮢᮤᮝᮤᮏᮚ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย RTGS: Siwichai, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i Chinese: 三佛齊)[3]:131 was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.[4] Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism
Buddhism
from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya
Srivijaya
was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of Malay archipelago.[5] The rise of the Srivijayan Empire
Empire
is seen to run parallel to the end of the Malay sea-faring period
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Philippines
Coordinates: 13°N 122°E / 13°N 122°E / 13; 122 Republic
Republic
of the Philippines Republika ng PilipinasFlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1] "For God, People, Nature, and Country"Anthem: Lupang Hinirang Chosen LandGreat SealDakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Tagalog) Great Seal of the PhilippinesCapital Manilaa 14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967Largest city
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Sailendra
The Shailendra dynasty
Shailendra dynasty
(IAST: Śailēndra derived from Sanskrit combined words Śaila and Indra, meaning "King of the Mountain",[1] also spelled Sailendra, Syailendra or Selendra) was the name of a notable Indianised Indonesian dynasty that emerged in 8th century Java whose reign marked a cultural renaissance in the region.[2] The Shailendras were active promoters of Mahayana
Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
and covered the Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
of Central Java
Java
with Buddhist monuments, one of which is the colossal stupa of Borobudur, now a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[3][4][5] The Shailendras are considered to be a thalassocracy and ruled maritime Southeast Asia, however they also relied on agriculture pursuits through intensive rice cultivation on the Kedu Plain
Kedu Plain
of Central Java
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Galuh Kingdom
Kingdom of Galuh was an ancient Hindu
Hindu
kingdom located in the eastern part of Tatar Pasundan (now West Java
West Java
province and Banyumasan region of Central Java
Central Java
province), present-day Indonesia. It was established following the end of the Tarumanagara
Tarumanagara
kingdom around the 7th century. Traditionally the kingdom was associated with Eastern Priangan cultural region, around the Citanduy and Cimanuk rivers, with territory spanned from Citarum
Citarum
river on the west, Pamali and Serayu river on the east. Its capital was first located in Karangkamulyan, Ciamis Regency, then Saunggalah, Kuningan, and Kawali, near today Ciamis City
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