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Mainland Europe (orthographic Projection)
MAINLAND is a contiguous landmass that is larger and often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote territories , such as exclaves or oceanic islands situated outside the continental shelf . In geography, "mainland" can denote the continental (i.e. non-insular) part of any polity or the main island within an island nation . In geopolitics , "mainland" is sometimes used interchangeably with terms like Metropole as an antonym to overseas territories . In the sense of "heartland", mainland is the opposite of periphery. The term is used on multiple levels. From a Tasmanian perspective, continental Australia
Australia
is the mainland, while to residents of Flinders Island , the main island of Tasmania
Tasmania
is also "the mainland". When you are "Down the Shore" in New Jersey
New Jersey
, there is an "island" and "mainland" in areas with an Island. For example, Long Beach Island is considered the island, while Manahawkin and Tuckerton are part of the mainland
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Mainland (other)
MAINLAND is a geomorphological /geopolitical term. MAINLAND may also refer to: * Mainland (cheese) , cheese brand owned by Fonterra * The Mainland (Father Ted) , episode of the Channel 4 sitcom Father Ted * Mainland, Western Australia , town in Western Australia * Mainland, Orkney , the main island of Orkney, Scotland * Mainland, Shetland , the main island of Shetland, Scotland * Mainland High School , Daytona Beach, Florida * Mainland (band) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MAINLAND. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mainland_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Contiguous
A CONTIGUITY is a series of things in contact or in proximity, or the state of being such a mass or series. CONTENTS * 1 Biology
Biology
* 2 Computer science * 3 Geography * 4 Interaction design * 5 Mathematics * 6 Philosophy * 7 Physics * 8 Probability theory * 9 Psychology * 10 See also * 11 References BIOLOGYA cluster of genes which are close to one another at a chromosome locus are called contiguous. Contiguous gene disorders result from deletions or duplications of a chromosome segment that cause a contiguous gene imbalance. Also, Contiguity refers to the way Taxonomy is ordered and formed after Charles Darwin wrote Theory of the Origins of Species in 1859. Before then, scientists used a more strict taxonomy based upon an organism's locomotion and mobility. Now science bases taxonomy on contiguity, tracking changes in an organism's anatomy over eons to show contiguous shaping over time. COMPUTER SCIENCEMemory elements are contiguous if adjacent and apparently connected (but they may, in fact, be disconnected). A computer file or other data stored on a mass storage system, particularly hard disk -based, is said to be contiguous—sometimes, ungrammatically, to be composed of one fragment—if the file data is in one continuous region without intervening extraneous data. A non-contiguous file is said to be fragmented , and can usually be defragmented with a software utility
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Landmass
LAND, sometimes referred to as DRY LAND, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water . The vast majority of human activity throughout history has occurred in land areas that support agriculture , habitat , and various natural resources . Some life forms (including terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals ) have developed from predecessor species that lived in bodies of water . Areas where land meets large bodies of water are called coastal zones . The division between land and water is a fundamental concept to humans. The demarcation between land and water can vary by local jurisdiction and other factors. A maritime boundary is one example of a political demarcation. A variety of natural boundaries exist to help clearly define where water meets land. Solid rock landforms are easier to demarcate than marshy or swampy boundaries, where there is no clear point at which the land ends and a body of water has begun. Demarcation can further vary due to tides and weather
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Human Geography
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY is the branch of social sciences that deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Human geography attends to human patterns of social interaction, as well as spatial level interdependencies, and how they influence or affect the earth's environment. As an intellectual discipline, geography is divided into the sub-fields of physical geography and human geography, the latter concentrating upon the study of human activities, by the application of qualitative and quantitative research methods
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Political Geography
POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures. Conventionally, for the purposes of analysis, political geography adopts a three-scale structure with the study of the state at the centre, the study of international relations (or geopolitics ) above it, and the study of localities below it. The primary concerns of the sub-discipline can be summarized as the inter-relationships between people, state, and territory. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Areas of study * 2.1 Critical political geography * 3 Notable political geographers * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links HISTORYThe origins of political geography lie in the origins of human geography itself, and the early practitioners were concerned mainly with the military and political consequences of the relationships between physical geography, state territories, and state power. In particular there was a close association with both regional geography , with its focus on the unique characteristics of regions, and environmental determinism , with its emphasis on the influence of the physical environment on human activities
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Outlying Territory
An OUTLYING TERRITORY or SEPARATE AREA is a state territory geographically separated from its parent territory and lies beyond Exclusive Economic Zone of its parent territory . The tables below are lists of outlying territories which are marked by distinct, non-contiguous maritime boundaries or land boundaries: TABLE Ia.Outlying geographical regions
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Exclaves
An ENCLAVE is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state. Territorial waters have the same sovereign attributes as land, and enclaves may therefore exist within territorial waters. :60 An EXCLAVE is a portion of a state or territory geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory (of one or more states). Many exclaves are also enclaves. Enclave is sometimes used improperly to denote a territory that is only partly surrounded by another state. Vatican City
City
and San Marino
San Marino
, enclaved by Italy
Italy
, and Lesotho
Lesotho
, enclaved by South Africa
South Africa
, are the only completely enclaved states. Unlike an enclave, an exclave can be surrounded by several states. The Azeri exclave of Nakhchivan is an example of an exclave. SEMI-ENCLAVES and SEMI-EXCLAVES are areas that, except for possessing an unsurrounded sea border, would otherwise be enclaves or exclaves. :116 :12–14 Enclaves and semi-enclaves can exist as independent states ( Monaco
Monaco
, Gambia
Gambia
and Brunei
Brunei
are semi-enclaves), while exclaves always constitute just a part of a sovereign state
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Oceanic Islands
An ISLAND or ISLE is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water . Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets , skerries , cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait , and a small island off the coast may be called a holm . A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago , e.g. the Philippines . An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway , and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde . Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island , though these are strictly tied islands . Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island. There are two main types of islands in the sea: continental and oceanic. There are also artificial islands
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Continental Shelf
The CONTINENTAL SHELF is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent , resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a SHELF SEA. Much of the shelves were exposed during glacial periods and interglacial periods . The shelf surrounding an island is known as an INSULAR SHELF. The continental margin , between the continental shelf and the abyssal plain , comprises a steep continental slope followed by the flatter continental rise. Sediment from the continent above cascades down the slope and accumulates as a pile of sediment at the base of the slope, called the continental rise. Extending as far as 500 km (310 mi) from the slope, it consists of thick sediments deposited by turbidity currents from the shelf and slope. The continental rise's gradient is intermediate between the slope and the shelf, on the order of 0.5–1°. Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea , the name continental shelf was given a legal definition as the stretch of the seabed adjacent to the shores of a particular country to which it belongs
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Continent
A CONTINENT is one of several very large landmasses on Earth
Earth
. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are: Asia
Asia
, Africa
Africa
, North America
North America
, South America
South America
, Antarctica
Antarctica
, Europe
Europe
, and Australia
Australia
. Geologically the continents largely correspond to areas of continental crust that are found on the continental plates . However some areas of continental crust are regions covered with water not usually included in the list of continents. The area referred to as Zealandia
Zealandia
is one such area (see submerged continents below). Islands are frequently grouped with a neighbouring continent to divide all the world's land into geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the island countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean
Ocean
are grouped together with the continent of Australia
Australia
to form a geopolitical region called _ Oceania
Oceania
_
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Polity
A POLITY is any kind of political entity . It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity , who have a capacity to mobilize resources , and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWA polity can be manifested in many different forms, such as a state , an empire , an international organization , a political organisation and other identifiable, resource-manipulating organisational structures. A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit. The most preeminent polities today are Westphalian states and nation-states , commonly (though incorrectly) referred to as "nations ". It therefore encapsulates a vast multitude of organisations, many of which form the fundamental apparatuses of contemporary states such as their subordinate civil and local government authorities. Polities do not need to be in control of any geographic areas, as not all political entities and governments have controlled the resources of one fixed geographic area. The historical Steppe Empires originating from the Eurasian Steppe are the most prominent example of non-sedentary polities. These polities differ from _states_ because of their lack of a fixed, defined territory
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Island Nation
An ISLAND COUNTRY is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands. As of 2011, 46 (approximately 24% ) of the 193 UN member states are island countries. CONTENTS * 1 Politics * 2 War * 3 Natural resources * 4 Geography * 5 Economics * 6 Composition * 7 See also * 8 References POLITICSThe percentage of island countries that are democratic is higher than that of continental countries. Historically they have been more prone to political stability than their continental counterparts. WAR Island countries have often been the basis of maritime conquest and historical rivalry between other countries. Island countries are more susceptible to attack by large, continental countries due to their size and dependence on sea and air lines of communication . Many island countries are also vulnerable to predation by mercenaries and other foreign invaders, although their isolation also makes them a difficult target. NATURAL RESOURCESMany island countries rely heavily on fish for their main supply of food. Some are turning to renewable energy —such as wind power , hydropower , geothermal power and biodiesel from copra oil —to combat the rise in oil prices. GEOGRAPHYSome island countries are more affected than other countries by climate change , which produces problems such as reduced land use , water scarcity and sometimes even resettlement issues
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Geopolitics
GEOPOLITICS (from Greek γῆ _gê_ "earth, land" and πολιτική _politikḗ_ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on international politics and international relations . Geopolitics is a method of studying foreign policy to understand, explain and predict international political behavior through geographical variables. These include area studies , climate , topography , demography , natural resources , and applied science of the region being evaluated. Geopolitics focuses on political power in relation to geographic space. In particular, territorial waters and land territory in correlation with diplomatic history . Academically, geopolitics analyses history and social science with reference to geography in relation to politics . Outside of academia, a variety of groups offer a geopolitical prognosis, including non-profit groups and for-profit private institutions (such as brokerage houses and consulting companies ).Topics of geopolitics include relations between the interests of international political actors, interests focused to an area, space, geographical element or ways, relations which create a geopolitical system. " Critical geopolitics " deconstructs classical geopolitical theories, by showing their political/ideological functions for great powers during and after the age of imperialism
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Overseas Territories
A TERRITORY is an administrative division , usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state . In most countries , a territory is an organized division of an area that is controlled by a country but is not formally developed into, or incorporated into, a political unit of the country that is of equal status to other political units that may often be referred to by words such as "provinces" or "states". In international politics , a territory is usually a non-sovereign geographic area which has come under the authority of another government; which has not been granted the powers of self-government normally devolved to secondary territorial divisions; or both. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Types * 2.1 Capital territory * 2.2 Overseas territory * 2.3 Dependent territory * 2.4 Special areas of a country * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links ETYMOLOGYThe origins of the word territory begin with the Proto-Indo-European root ters ('to dry'). From this emerged the Latin word terra ('earth, land') and later the Latin word territorium ('land around a town'). Territory made its debut as a word in Middle English during the 14th century. At this point the suffix -orium, which denotes place, was replaced with -ory which also expresses place
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Tasmania
TASMANIA (/tæzˈmeɪniə/ ;, abbreviated as TAS and known colloquially as "Tassie") is an island state of Australia
Australia
. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait . The state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world , and the surrounding 334 islands . The state has a population of around 519,100 as of June 2016 , just over forty percent of which resides in the Greater Hobart
Hobart
precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart
Hobart
. Tasmania's area is 68,401 km2 (26,410 sq mi), of which the main island covers 64,519 km2 (24,911 sq mi). Promoted as a natural state; protected areas of Tasmania
Tasmania
cover about 42% of the land area of the state, which includes national parks and World Heritage Sites . Tasmania
Tasmania
was the founding place of the first environmental party in the world. Though an island state, due to a mapping error the state shares a land border with Victoria at its northernmost terrestrial point, Boundary Islet , a nature reserve in Bass Strait. The Bishop and Clerk Islets , about 37 km south of Macquarie Island, are the southernmost terrestrial point of the state of Tasmania, and the southernmost internationally recognised land in Australia
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