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Maillard Reaction
The Maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
(/maɪˈjɑːr/ my-YAR; French pronunciation: ​[majaʁ]) is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor. Seared steaks, pan-fried dumplings, cookies and other kinds of biscuits, breads, toasted marshmallows, as well as many other foods, undergo this reaction. It is named after French chemist Louis-Camille Maillard, who first described it in 1912 while attempting to reproduce biological protein synthesis.[1][2] The reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning which typically proceeds rapidly from around 140 to 165 °C (280 to 330 °F). Many recipes will call for an oven temperature high enough to ensure that a Maillard reaction
Maillard reaction
occurs[3]
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Diacetyl
Diacetyl
Diacetyl
( IUPAC
IUPAC
systematic name: butanedione or butane-2,3-dione) is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3CO)2. It is a yellow or green liquid with an intensely buttery flavor. It is a vicinal diketone (two C=O groups, side-by-side) with the molecular formula C4H6O2. Diacetyl
Diacetyl
occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages and is added to some foods to impart its buttery flavor.Contents1 Chemical structure 2 Occurrence 3 Production 4 Applications4.1 In food products 4.2 In alcoholic beverages 4.3 Other5 Safety5.1 Worker safety5.1.1 United States5.2 Consumer safety 5.3 European Union regulation 5.4 Electronic cigarettes6 See also 7 References 8 External linksChemical structure[edit] A distinctive feature of diacetyl (and other 1,2-diketones) is the long C–C bond linking the carbonyl centers
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Odor Thresholds
The odor detection threshold is the lowest concentration of a certain odor compound that is perceivable by the human sense of smell. The threshold of a chemical compound is determined in part by its shape, polarity, partial charges, and molecular mass. The olfactory mechanisms responsible for a compound's different detection threshold is not well understood. As such, odor thresholds cannot be accurately predicted. Rather, they must be measured through extensive tests using human subjects in laboratory settings. Optical isomers can have different detection thresholds because their conformations may cause them to be less perceivable for the human nose
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Umami
Umami
Umami
(/uˈmɑːmi/), or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).[1][2] It has been described as savory, and characteristic of broths and cooked meats.[3][4] People taste umami through taste receptors that typically respond to glutamate
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Coffee Roasting
Roasting coffee transforms the chemical and physical properties of green coffee beans into roasted coffee products. The roasting process is what produces the characteristic flavor of coffee by causing the green coffee beans to change in taste. Unroasted beans contain similar if not higher levels of acids, protein, sugars, and caffeine as those that have been roasted, but lack the taste of roasted coffee beans due to the Maillard and other chemical reactions that occur during roasting. The vast majority of coffee is roasted commercially on a large scale, but small-scale commercial roasting has grown significantly with the trend toward "single-origin" coffees served at specialty shops
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French Fries
French fries
French fries
(North American English), chips (British and Commonwealth English),[1] finger chips (Indian English),[2] or French-fried potatoes are batonnet or allumette-cut deep-fried potatoes. In the United States
United States
and most of Canada, the term fries refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes, while in the United Kingdom, Australia, South Africa
South Africa
(rarely), Ireland
Ireland
and New Zealand, thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called shoestring fries or skinny fries to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker. French fries
French fries
are served hot, either soft or crispy, and are generally eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, and they commonly appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants, pubs, and bars
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Malted Barley
Malt
Malt
is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.[1][2][3][4] Malting grains develops the enzymes required for modifying the grain's starches into various types of sugar, including the monosaccharide glucose, the disaccharide maltose, the trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. Depending on when the malting process is stopped one gets a preferred starch enzyme ratio and partly converted starch into fermentable sugars. Malt also contains small amounts of other sugars, such as sucrose and fructose, which are not products of starch modification but were already in the grain
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Malt
Malt
Malt
is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air.[1][2][3][4] Malting grains develops the enzymes required for modifying the grain's starches into various types of sugar, including the monosaccharide glucose, the disaccharide maltose, the trisaccharide maltotriose, and higher sugars called maltodextrines. It also develops other enzymes, such as proteases, which break down the proteins in the grain into forms that can be used by yeast. Depending on when the malting process is stopped one gets a preferred starch enzyme ratio and partly converted starch into fermentable sugars. Malt also contains small amounts of other sugars, such as sucrose and fructose, which are not products of starch modification but were already in the grain
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Dry Milk
Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content. Another purpose is to reduce its bulk for economy of transportation. Powdered milk and dairy products include such items as dry whole milk, nonfat (skimmed) dry milk, dry buttermilk, dry whey products and dry dairy blends. Many dairy products exported conform to standards laid out in Codex Alimentarius
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Condensed Milk
Condensed milk
Condensed milk
is cow's milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found in the form of "sweetened condensed milk" ("SCM") , with sugar added, and the two terms - "condensed milk", "sweetened condensed milk" - are often used interchangeably today.[1] Sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if not opened
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Pandanus Amaryllifolius
Pandanus
Pandanus
amaryllifolius is a tropical plant in the Pandanus (screwpine) genus, which is commonly known as 'Pandan’ (/ˈpændən/), and is used widely in South Asian and Southeast Asian cooking as a flavoring.Contents1 Botanical features 2 Culinary use 3 Use in traditional medicine 4 Use as natural air freshener 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksBotanical features[edit] The characteristic aroma of pandan is caused by the aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, which may give white bread, jasmine rice and basmati rice (as well as bread flowers Vallaris
Vallaris
glabra) their typical smell.[2] The plant is rare in the wild but is widely cultivated. It is an upright, green plant with fan-shaped sprays of long, narrow, blade-like leaves and woody aerial roots
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Nanogram
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg.Contents1 Units of mass1.1 Other units 1.2 Below 10−21 g 1.3 10−19 to 10−16 g 1.4 10−12 to 10−7 g 1.5 10−9 to 10−4 g 1.6 0.001 grams to 1 gram  1.7 1,000 grams to 100 tonnes 1.8 106 to 1011 kg 1.9 1012 to 1017 kg 1.10 1018 to 1023 kg 1.11 1024 to 1029 kg 1.12 1030 to 1035 kg 1.13 1036 to 1041 kg 1.14 1042 kg and greater2 Notes 3 External linksUnits of mass[edit]SI multiples for gram (g)SubmultiplesMultiplesValue SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name10−1 g dg decigram 101 g dag decagram10−2 g cg centigram 102 g hg hectogram10−3 g mg milligram 103 g kg kilogram10−6 g µg microgram (mcg) 106 g Mg megagram (tonne)10−9 g ng nanogram 109 g Gg gigagram10−12 g pg picogram 1012 g Tg teragram10−15 g fg femtogram 1015 g Pg petagram<
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United States Department Of Agriculture
The United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program
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Liter
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l,[1] sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume [2] — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,[3] although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3)
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Myoglobin
3RGKIdentifiersAliases MB, PVALB, myoglobgin, myoglobin, MyoglobinExternal IDs OMIM: 160000 MGI: 96922 HomoloGene: 3916 GeneCards: MB Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
Chromosome
22 (human)[1]Band 22q12.3 Start 35,606,764 bp[1]End 3
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Silage
Silage
Silage
is fermented, high-moisture stored fodder which can be fed to cattle, sheep and other such ruminants (cud-chewing animals)[1] or used as a biofuel feedstock for anaerobic digesters. It is fermented and stored in a process called ensilage, ensiling or silaging, and is usually made from grass crops, including maize, sorghum or other cereals, using the entire green plant (not just the grain)
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