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Magpie
Magpies are birds of the Corvidae
Corvidae
(crow) family. The black and white Eurasian magpie
Eurasian magpie
is widely considered one of the most intelligent animals in the world[1][2][3] and one of the only nonmammal species able to recognize itself in a mirror test[4] (a recent study suggests that giant manta rays can also recognize their own reflections[5]). In addition to other members of the genus Pica, corvids considered as magpies are in the genera Cissa. Magpies of the genus Pica are generally found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia and western North America, with populations also present in Tibet and high elevation areas of India, i.e. Ladakh (Kargil and Leh) and Pakistan. Magpies of the genus Cyanopica
Cyanopica
are found in East Asia and also the Iberian peninsula
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Holarctic
The Holarctic
Holarctic
is the name for the biogeographic realm that encompasses the majority of habitats found throughout the northern continents of the world, combining Wallace's Palearctic
Palearctic
zoogeographical region, consisting of North Africa
North Africa
and all of Eurasia
Eurasia
(with the exception of the southern Arabian Peninsula, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent), and the Nearctic
Nearctic
zoogeographical region, consisting of North America, north of Mexico. These regions are further subdivided into a variety of ecoregions. Many ecosystems, and the animal and plant communities that depend on them, are found across multiple continents in large portions of this realm. The continuity of these ecosystems results from the shared glacial history of the realm
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South Asia
South
South
Asia
Asia
or Southern Asia
Asia
(also known as Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC
SAARC
countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal
Nepal
and all parts of India
India
situated south of the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush
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Monophyletic
In cladistics, a monophyletic group is a group of organisms that forms a clade, which consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Monophyletic groups are typically characterised by shared derived characteristics (synapomorphies), which distinguish organisms in the clade from other organisms. The arrangement of the members of a monophyletic group is called a monophyly. Monophyly
Monophyly
is contrasted with paraphyly and polyphyly as shown in the second diagram. A paraphyletic group consists of all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups. A polyphyletic group is characterized by convergent features or habits of scientific interest (for example, night-active primates, fruit trees, aquatic insects). The features by which a polyphyletic group is differentiated from others are not inherited from a common ancestor. These definitions have taken some time to be accepted
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Chordate
And see textA chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates with metameric segmentation and a circulatory system. In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development. Taxonomically, the phylum includes the following subphyla: the Vertebrata, which includes fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; the Tunicata, which includes salps and sea squirts; and the Cephalochordata, which include the lancelets. There are also additional extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia
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Aves
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Passeriformes
and see textDiversityRoughly 100 families, around 5,400 speciesA passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or — less accurately — as songbirds, passerines are distinguished from other orders of birds by the arrangement of their toes (three pointing forward and one back), which facilitates perching. With more than 110 families and some 5,100 identified species,[1] Passeriformes is the largest order of birds and among the most diverse orders of terrestrial vertebrates.[2] The passerines contain several groups of brood parasites such as the viduas, cuckoo-finches, and the cowbirds
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Giant Manta Ray
The giant oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) is a species of ray in the family Mobulidae, and the largest type of ray in the world. They are circumglobal and are typically found in tropical and subtropical waters, but can also be found in temperate waters.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Physical distinctions between oceanic manta ray and reef manta ray2 Distribution and habitat 3 Captivity 4 Biology 5 Status and threats5.1 Natural predation 5.2 Fishery6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDescription[edit]M. birostris with rolled up cephalic fins and characteristic dorsal coloration (Ko Hin Daeng, Thailand)Side view of M
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Crow
A Crow
Crow
is a bird of the genus Corvus, or more broadly is a synonym for all of Corvus. The term "crow" is used as part of the common name of many species
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Conspecific
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. Biochemist Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
stated that Biological specificity is the set of characteristics of living organisms or constituents of living organisms of being special or doing something special. Each animal or plant species is special. It differs in some way from all other species. … …biological specificity is the major problem about understanding life.[1]Contents1 Subtopics1.1 Interspecific 1.2 Intraspecific 1.3 Conspecific 1.4 Heterospecific2 Related concepts 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSubtopics[edit] Characteristics may further be described as being interspecific, intraspecific, and conspecific. Interspecific[edit] Interspecificity (literally between/among species), or being interspecific, describes issues between individuals of separate species
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Korea
Korea
Korea
(/kəˈriːə/) is a historical region in East Asia; since 1945, it has been divided into two distinct sovereign states: North Korea (officially the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea") and South Korea
Korea
(officially the "Republic of Korea"). Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea
Korea
is bordered by China
China
to the northwest and Russia
Russia
to the northeast. It is separated from Japan
Japan
to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan
Japan
(East Sea). Korea
Korea
emerged as a singular political entity in 676 AD, after centuries of conflict among the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which were unified as Unified Silla
Unified Silla
to the south and Balhae
Balhae
to the north
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East Asia
East Asia
Asia
or Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia
is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical[3] or pan-ethno-cultural[4] terms.[5][6] Geographically and geopolitically, the region constitutes Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[7][8][9][10][11][3][12][13][14][15] The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as Ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire.[16][17] East Asia
Asia
was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history
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Bird
Birds (Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world’s most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds
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Marillion
Marillion
Marillion
/məˈrɪliən/ are a British rock band, formed in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, in 1979. They emerged from the post-punk music scene in Britain and existed as a bridge between the styles of punk rock and classic progressive rock,[4] becoming the most commercially successful neo-progressive rock band of the 1980s.[5] Marillion's recorded studio output since 1982 is composed of eighteen albums, generally regarded in two distinct eras, delineated by the departure of original lead singer Fish in late 1988 and the subsequent arrival of replacement Steve Hogarth
Steve Hogarth
in early 1989. The band achieved eight Top Ten UK albums between 1983 and 1994, including a number one album in 1985 with Misplaced Childhood, and during the period the band were fronted by Fish they scored eleven Top 40 hits on the UK Singles Chart
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