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Magnus Lindberg
MAGNUS GUSTAF ADOLF LINDBERG (born 27 June 1958) is a Finnish composer and pianist. He was the New York Philharmonic
New York Philharmonic
's composer-in-residence from 2009 to 2012 and has been the London Philharmonic Orchestra 's composer-in-residence since the beginning of the 2014-15 season. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Compositions and style * 3 Awards and honors * 4 Works * 4.1 Orchestral * 4.2 Chamber orchestra or ensemble * 4.3 Soloist(s) and orchestra * 4.4 Wind orchestra * 4.5 Small ensemble * 4.6 Solo instrument * 4.7 Vocal * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 External links EARLY LIFELindberg was born in Helsinki
Helsinki
, where he studied at the Sibelius Academy under Einojuhani Rautavaara and Paavo Heininen , beginning with piano
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Pierre Boulez
PIERRE LOUIS JOSEPH BOULEZ CBE
CBE
(French: ; 26 March 1925 – 5 January 2016) was a French composer, conductor, writer and organiser of institutions. He was one of the dominant figures of the post-war classical music world. Born in Montbrison in the Loire department of France, the son of an engineer, Boulez studied at the Conservatoire de Paris
Conservatoire de Paris
with Olivier Messiaen , and privately with Andrée Vaurabourg and René Leibowitz . He began his professional career in the late 1940s as Music Director of the Renaud-Barrault theatre company in Paris. As a young composer in the 1950s he quickly became a leading figure in avant-garde music , playing an important role in the development of integral serialism and controlled chance music . From the 1970s onwards he pioneered the electronic transformation of instrumental music in real time
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Tristan Murail
TRISTAN MURAIL (born 11 March 1947) is a French composer associated with the "spectral " technique of composition. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and studies * 2 Music * 3 Works * 3.1 Orchestral * 3.2 Ensemble * 3.3 Chamber * 3.4 Instrumental * 3.5 Vocal * 4 References * 5 Specialty studies * 6 External links EARLY LIFE AND STUDIESMurail was born in Le Havre
Le Havre
, France
France
. His father, Gérard Murail, is a poet and his mother, Marie-Thérèse Barrois, a journalist. One of his brothers, Lorris Murail, and his younger sister Elvire Murail, a.k.a. Moka, are also writers, and his younger sister Marie-Aude Murail is a French children's writer. Following his university studies in Arabic and economics, Murail attended the Paris Conservatory
Paris Conservatory
, where he studied composition with Olivier Messiaen
Olivier Messiaen
from 1967 to 1972
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Finnish People
b No official statistics are kept on ethnicity. However, statistics of the Finnish population according to first language and citizenship are documented and available. c Finnish born population resident in Sweden. This figure likely includes Finnish-born ethnic Swedes repatriated to Sweden
Sweden
and as such might be a misleading figure. d Swedish population with at least partial Finnish background. FINNS or FINNISH PEOPLE (Finnish : suomalaiset, Swedish : finnar) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland
Finland
. Finns
Finns
are traditionally divided into smaller regional groups that span several countries adjacent to Finland, both those who are native to these countries as well as those who have resettled. Also, some of these may be classified as separate ethnic groups, rather than subgroups of Finns
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Finnish Language
FINNISH ( suomi (help ·info ), or suomen kieli ) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland
Finland
and by ethnic Finns
Finns
outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland
Finland
and an official minority language in Sweden
Sweden
. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli , a Finnish dialect, are spoken. The Kven language , a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway
Norway
by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is the eponymous member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages . It modifies and inflects nouns , adjectives , pronouns , numerals and verbs , depending on their roles in the sentence
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Juvenilia
JUVENILIA are literary, musical or artistic works produced by an author during their youth. Written juvenilia, if published at all, usually appear as a retrospective publication, some time after the author has become well known for later works. The term was first recorded in 1622 in George Wither 's poetry collection Ivvenilia. Later, other notable poets, such as John Dryden and Alfred Lord Tennyson
Alfred Lord Tennyson
, came to use the term for collections of their early poetry. Jane Austen
Jane Austen
's literary works are also titled Juvenilia. Exceptions to retrospective publication include Leigh Hunt\'s collection Juvenilia , first published when he was still in his teens; and Lord Byron
Lord Byron
's publication of Fugitive Pieces when the author was only 17 years old, and his subsequent publication of Hours of Idleness at the age of 18
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Musique Concrète
MUSIQUE CONCRèTE (French pronunciation: ​ , meaning "concrete music") is a form of musique expérimentale (experimental music (Palombini 1998 , 542)) that exploits acousmatic listening , meaning sound identities can often be intentionally obscured or appear unconnected to their source cause. It can feature sounds derived from recordings of musical instruments , the human voice , and the natural environment as well as those created using synthesizers and computer-based digital signal processing . Compositions in this idiom are not restricted to the normal musical rules of melody , harmony , rhythm , metre , and so on. Originally contrasted with "pure" elektronische Musik (based solely on the production and manipulation of electronically produced sounds rather than recorded sounds), the theoretical basis of musique concrète as a compositional practice was developed by Pierre Schaeffer , beginning in the early 1940s
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Minimalism
In visual arts , music , and other mediums, MINIMALISM is a style that uses pared-down design elements. Minimalism
Minimalism
began in post–World War II Western art, most strongly with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd , John McCracken , Agnes Martin , Dan Flavin , Robert Morris , Anne Truitt , and Frank Stella
Frank Stella
. It derives from the reductive aspects of modernism and is often interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism and a bridge to postminimal art practices. Minimalism
Minimalism
in music often features repetition and iteration such as those of the compositions of La Monte Young , Terry Riley , Steve Reich , Philip Glass
Philip Glass
, and John Adams
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BBC Proms
THE PROMS, more formally known as the HENRY WOOD PROMENADE CONCERTS PRESENTED BY THE BBC, is an eight-week summer season of daily orchestral classical music concerts and other events held annually, predominantly in the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in central London
London
, England
England
, UK . Founded in 1895, seasons now consist of concerts in Albert Hall, chamber music concerts at Cadogan Hall
Cadogan Hall
, additional Proms in the Park events across the UK on the Last Night of the Proms, and associated educational and children's events. The season is a significant event in British culture
British culture
. In classical music, Jiří Bělohlávek described the Proms as "the world's largest and most democratic musical festival"
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Louvre Palace
The LOUVRE PALACE (French : Palais du Louvre, IPA: ) is a former royal palace located on the Right Bank of the Seine
Seine
in Paris
Paris
, between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain l\'Auxerrois . Originally a fortress built in the medieval period, it became a royal palace in the fourteenth century under Charles V and was used from time to time by the kings of France as their main Paris
Paris
residence. Its present structure has evolved in stages since the 16th century. In 1793 part of the Louvre
Louvre
became a public museum, now the Musée du Louvre
Louvre
, which has expanded to occupy most of the building
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Prix Italia
The PRIX ITALIA is an international Italian television, radio-broadcasting and website award. It was established in 1948 by RAI
RAI
– Radiotelevisione Italiana (in 1948 RAI
RAI
had the denomination RAI
RAI
– Radio Audizioni Italiane) in Capri
Capri
. 87 public and private radio and television organizations representing 46 countries from the five continents form and outline the community of the Prix Italia which is in continuous evolution. Unique in the world, among International festivals and prizes, it is the organizational and decision-making body of the Prix. The delegates decide and resolve the editorial outline and elect the President. RAI
RAI
is in charge and responsible of the organization of the manifestation, and the General Secretariat has its headquarters in Rome
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Louvre Pyramid
The LOUVRE PYRAMID (Pyramide du Louvre) is a large glass and metal pyramid designed by Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei
I.M. Pei
, surrounded by three smaller pyramids, in the main courtyard (Cour Napoléon) of the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
( Palais du Louvre
Palais du Louvre
) in Paris
Paris
. The large pyramid serves as the main entrance to the Louvre
Louvre
Museum . Completed in 1989, it has become a landmark of the city of Paris
Paris
. CONTENTS * 1 Design and construction * 2 History * 3 Controversy * 4 Urban legend of 666 panes * 5 La Pyramide Inversée * 6 Renovation * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Inside the Pyramid: the view of the Louvre
Louvre
Museum in Paris
Paris
from the underground lobby of the pyramid
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I.M. Pei
IEOH MING PEI, FAIA , RIBA (born 26 April 1917), commonly known as I. M. PEI, is a Chinese American
Chinese American
architect. In 1948, Pei was recruited by New York City
New York City
real estate magnate William Zeckendorf . There he spent seven years before establishing his own independent design firm I. M. Pei & Associates in 1955, which became I. M. Pei & Partners in 1966 and later in 1989 became Pei Cobb Freed "> As a child, Pei found the Shizilin Garden in Suzhou
Suzhou
to be "an ideal playground". Pei's ancestry traces back to the Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
, when his family moved from Anhui
Anhui
province to Suzhou, but most importantly his family were directors of the Bank of China which later on funded the construction of important projects including the Kips Bay project in New York
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Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)
The SYMPHONY NO. 9 in D minor , Op. 125, also known as "the Choral", is Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
's final complete symphony . Completed in 1824, the symphony is one of the best-known works in classical music . It is almost universally considered by critics to be one of Beethoven's greatest works , and many consider it one of the greatest compositions in the western musical canon. The symphony was the first example of a major composer using voices in a symphony (thus making it a choral symphony ). The words are sung during the final movement by four vocal soloists and a chorus . They were taken from the "Ode to Joy ", a poem written by Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
in 1785 and revised in 1803, with text additions made by the composer. In the 2010s, it stands as one of the most performed symphonies in the world
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List Of Works By Beethoven
The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827) are classified by both genre and various numbering systems. The most common methods of numbering Beethoven's works are by opus number , assigned by Beethoven's publishers during his lifetime, and by number within genre. For example, the 14th string quartet , published as Opus 131, may be referenced either as "String Quartet No. 14 " or "the Opus 131 String Quartet ". Many works that were unpublished or else published without opus numbers have been assigned either " WoO
WoO
" (works without opus number) or "Anh" (appendix) numbers. For example, the short piano piece "Für Elise ", is more fully known as the "Bagatelle in A minor, WoO
WoO
59 ('Für Elise')". Some works are also commonly referred to by their nicknames, such as the \'Kreutzer\' Violin Sonata
Sonata
, or the Eroica Symphony
Symphony

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Punk Rock
PUNK ROCK (or simply "PUNK") is a rock music genre that developed in the early to mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk " music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock. Punk
Punk
bands typically produced short or fast-paced songs, with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, and often political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk
Punk
embraces a DIY ethic ; many bands self-produce recordings and distribute them through informal channels. The term "punk" was first used in relation to rock music by some American critics in the early 1970s, to describe garage bands and their devotees
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