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Magic (illusion)
Magic, along with its subgenres of, and sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or street magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible feats using natural means.[1][2] It is to be distinguished from paranormal magic which, it is claimed, are effects created through supernatural means. It is one of the oldest performing arts in the world.Contents1 History1.1 Magic tricks 1.2 Modern stage magic2 Categories of effects 3 Learning magic 4 Types of magic performance 5 Misuse of magic 6 Researching magic 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory[edit] The term "magic" etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia (μαγεία). In ancient times, Greeks and Persians had been at war for centuries, and the Persian priests, called magosh in Persian, came to be known as magoi in Greek
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Magi
Magi
Magi
(/ˈmeɪdʒaɪ/; singular magus /ˈmeɪɡəs/; from Latin
Latin
magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
or Zoroaster. The earliest known use of the word Magi
Magi
is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great, known as the Behistun Inscription. Old Persian texts, pre-dating the Hellenistic period, refer to a Magus as a Zurvanic, and presumably Zoroastrian, priest. Pervasive throughout the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia
Western Asia
until late antiquity and beyond, mágos, "magician", was influenced by (and eventually displaced) Greek goēs (γόης), the older word for a practitioner of magic, to include astrology, alchemy and other forms of esoteric knowledge
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Sword Swallowing
Sword swallowing is a skill in which the performer passes a sword through the mouth and down the esophagus to the stomach. This feat is not swallowing in the traditional sense; the natural processes that constitute swallowing do not take place, but are repressed in order to keep the passage from the mouth to the stomach open for the sword. The practice is dangerous and there is risk of injury.Contents1 History 2 Anatomy and method 3 Side effects and injuries3.1 Medical case reports4 Contributions to science 5 Sword swallowers 6 Guinness World Records 7 ReferencesHistory[edit]The Great Victorina Troupe: originators and presenters of the most marvelous sword swallowing act on earthStreet performerSword swallowing spread to Greece and Rome in the 1st century AD and to China in the 8th century. In Japan, it became a part of the Japanese acrobatic theatre, Sangaku, which included fire eating, tightrope walking, juggling and early illusion
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Cult
The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal
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Money
Money
Money
is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.[1][2][3] The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, sometimes, a standard of deferred payment.[4][5] Any item or verifiable record that fulfills these functions can be considered as money. Money
Money
is historically an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money.[4] Fiat money, like any check or note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity
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Trojan Horse
The Trojan Horse
Horse
is a tale from the Trojan War
Trojan War
about the subterfuge that the Greeks used to enter the independent city of Troy
Troy
and win the war. In the canonical version, after a fruitless 10-year siege, the Greeks constructed a huge wooden horse, and hid a select force of men inside. The Greeks pretended to sail away, and the Trojans pulled the horse into their city as a victory trophy. That night the Greek force crept out of the horse and opened the gates for the rest of the Greek army, which had sailed back under cover of night. The Greeks entered and destroyed the city of Troy, ending the war. Metaphorically a "Trojan Horse" has come to mean any trick or stratagem that causes a target to invite a foe into a securely protected bastion or place
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History
—George Santayana History
History
(from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past as it is described in written documents.[3][4] Events occurring before written record are considered prehistory. It is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events
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London
London
London
(/ˈlʌndən/ ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city of England
England
and the United Kingdom.[7][8] Standing on the River Thames
River Thames
in the south east of the island of Great Britain, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium.[9] London's ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Paris
Paris
(French pronunciation: ​[paʁi] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in France, with an administrative-limits area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and an official population of 2,206,488 (2015).[5] The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-
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Fair
A fair (archaic: faire or fayre) is a gathering of people for a variety of entertainment or commercial activities. It is normally of the essence of a fair that it is temporary with scheduled times lasting from an afternoon to several weeks.Contents1 Types of fairs 2 History 3 Legacy3.1 Legal implications 3.2 In art and language4 See also 5 References 6 Further readingTypes of fairs[edit]Roundabouts (also known as a carousel or merry-go-round) are traditional attractions, often seen at fairsVariations of fairs include:Street fair, a fair that celebrates the character of a neighborhood and merchant oriented, (as the word 'fair' is historically defined; that being a marketplace). As its name suggests, it is usually held on the main street of a neighborhood. Fête, an elaborate festival, party, or celebration. Festival, an event ordinarily coordinated and/or celebrated by a community or group with a theme e.g
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Fire Breathing
Fire breathing is the act of making a plume or stream of fire by creating a precise mist of fuel from the mouth over an open flame. Regardless of the precautions taken, it is always a dangerous activity, but the proper technique and the correct fuel reduces the risk of injury or death.Contents1 Performance 2 Training 3 Health and safety3.1 Fuels 3.2 Self-ignition 3.3 Health4 In modern culture 5 World records5.1 Simultaneous fire breathing 5.2 Fire breathing pass 5.3 Highest flame 5.4 Most flames6 See also 7 References 8 External linksPerformance[edit] Fire breathing is performed by both professionals and non-professionals. Professional fire breathers usually incorporate the fire performance skill within a show where other fire skills are performed. The element of danger in performing fire breathing and other fire skills enhances the entertainment spectacle for many audience members. Training[edit]This section does not cite any sources
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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Supernatural
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD)[1][2] is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature. Examples often include characteristics of or relating to ghosts, angels, gods, souls and spirits, non-material beings, or anything else considered beyond nature like magic, miracles, or etc..[3] Over time, things once thought to be supernatural such as lightning, seasons, and human senses have been shown to have entirely naturalistic explanations and origins. Some believe that which is considered supernatural will someday be discovered to be completely physical and natural. Those who believe only the physical world exists are called naturalists
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George II Of Great Britain
George II (George Augustus; German: Georg II. August; 30 October / 9 November 1683O.S./N.S. – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760. George was the last British monarch born outside Great Britain: he was born and brought up in northern Germany. His grandmother, Sophia of Hanover, became second in line to the British throne after about fifty Catholics higher in line were excluded by the Act of Settlement 1701 and the Acts of Union 1707, which restricted the succession to Protestants. After the deaths of Sophia and Anne, Queen of Great Britain, in 1714, his father George I, Elector of Hanover, inherited the British throne
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Illusions
An illusion is a distortion of the senses, which can reveal how the human brain normally organizes and interprets sensory stimulation. Though illusions distort reality, they are generally shared by most people.[1] Illusions may occur with any of the human senses, but visual illusions (optical illusions) are the best-known and understood. The emphasis on visual illusions occurs because vision often dominates the other senses. For example, individuals watching a ventriloquist will perceive the voice is coming from the dummy since they are able to see the dummy mouth the words.[2] Some illusions are based on general assumptions the brain makes during perception. These assumptions are made using organizational principles (e.g., Gestalt theory), an individual's capacity for depth perception and motion perception, and perceptual constancy
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