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Maghrebi Arabic
MAGHREBI ARABIC, or MAGHREBI DARIJA, is the principal spoken language in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, including Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia
Tunisia
and Libya . It includes Moroccan Arabic , Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic and Libyan Arabic . It is sometimes referred to as WESTERN ARABIC (as opposed to the Eastern Arabic
Arabic
known as Mashriqi Arabic
Mashriqi Arabic
). Speakers of Maghrebi call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى (al-)fushā) is the preferred language of governments, legislation and judiciary of countries in Maghreb
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Spoken Language
A SPOKEN LANGUAGE is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language . Many languages have no written form and so are only spoken. An ORAL LANGUAGE or VOCAL LANGUAGE is a language produced with the vocal tract , as opposed to a sign language , which is produced with the hands and face. The term "spoken language" is sometimes used to mean only vocal languages, especially by linguists, making all three terms synonyms by excluding sign languages. Others refer to sign language as "spoken", especially in contrast to written transcriptions of signs. In spoken language, much of the meaning is determined by the context. That contrasts with written language in which more of the meaning is provided directly by the text. In spoken language, the truth of a proposition is determined by common-sense reference to experience, but in written language, a greater emphasis is placed on logical and coherent argument
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Vernacular Language
A VERNACULAR or VERNACULAR LANGUAGE is the native language or native dialect (usually colloquial or informal) of a specific population, especially as distinguished from a literary , national or standard variety of the language, or a lingua franca (also called a vehicular language) used in the region or state inhabited by that population. Some linguists use "vernacular" and "nonstandard dialect " as synonyms . The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c. 1250.) It deals with Scanian and Scanian Ecclesiastical Law . An allegory of philosophy and grammar, Trinci Palace , Foligno, Italy, by Gentile da Fabriano
Gentile da Fabriano
, who lived at about the time the Italian language was being standardized
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Darja, Iran
DARREH JA (Persian : دره جا‎‎, also Romanized as DARREH Jā; also known asDARJā) is a village in Mahan Rural District , Mahan District , Kerman County , Kerman Province , Iran . At the 2006 census, its population was 12, in 6 families. REFERENCES * ^ Darreh Ja can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3764159" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". * ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" . Islamic Republic of Iran . Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11
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Grammatical Number
In linguistics, GRAMMATICAL NUMBER is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more"). In many languages, including English , the number categories are singular and plural . Some languages also have a dual , trial , quadral and paucal number or other arrangements. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun. The word "number" is also used in linguistics to describe the distinction between certain grammatical aspects that indicate the number of times an event occurs, such as the semelfactive aspect, the iterative aspect, etc. For that use of the term, see "Grammatical aspect "
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Prefix (linguistics)
A PREFIX is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un- is added to the word happy, it creates the word unhappy. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a PREFORMATIVE, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed. Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional , creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational , creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category . Prefixes, like all other affixes, are usually bound morphemes . In English , there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes instead for that purpose
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Grammatical Conjugation
In linguistics , CONJUGATION (/ˌkɒndʒᵿˈɡeɪʃən/ ) is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar ). Conjugation may be affected by person , number , gender , tense , aspect , mood , voice , and/or other grammatical categories such as possession , definiteness , politeness , causativity , clusivity , interrogativity , transitivity , valency , polarity , telicity , volition , mirativity , evidentiality , animacy , associativity, pluractionality , agreement , polypersonal agreement , incorporation , noun class , noun classifiers , and verb classifiers in some languages. Agglutinative and polysynthetic languages tend to have the most complex conjugations albeit some fusional languages such as Archi can also have extremely complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root and/or several modifications of it (stems )
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Verb
A VERB, from the Latin
Latin
verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech ) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). In the usual description of English , the basic form, with or without the particle to, is the infinitive . In many languages , verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense , aspect , mood , and voice . A verb may also agree with the person , gender or number of some of its arguments , such as its subject , or object . Verbs have tenses: present, to indicate that an action is being carried out; past, to indicate that an action has been done; future, to indicate that an action will be done
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Stratum (linguistics)
In linguistics , a STRATUM ( Latin
Latin
for "layer") or STRATE is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact . A SUBSTRATUM or SUBSTRATE is a language that has lower power or prestige than another, while a SUPERSTRATUM or SUPERSTRATE is the language that has higher power or prestige. Both substratum and superstratum languages influence each other, but in different ways. An ADSTRATUM or ADSTRATE refers to a language that is in contact with another language in a neighbor population without having identifiably higher or lower prestige. The notion of "strata" has first been developed by the Italian linguist Graziadio Isaia Ascoli (1829–1907), and became known in the English-speaking world by two different authors in 1932. Thus, both terms refer to a situation where an intrusive language establishes itself in the territory of another, typically as the result of migration
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Linguists
LINGUISTICS is the scientific study of language , and involves an analysis of language form , language meaning , and language in context . The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BCE Indian grammarian Pāṇini
Pāṇini
, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning . Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties. The study of language meaning , on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity
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Charles A. Ferguson
CHARLES ALBERT FERGUSON (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University . He was one of the founders of sociolinguistics and is best known for his work on diglossia . The TOEFL test was created under his leadership at the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC . Ferguson was also the leader of a team of linguists in Ethiopia under the Ford Foundation 's Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching. One of the many publications that came out of this was his article proposing the Ethiopian Language Area (Ferguson 1976), an article that has become widely cited and an important milestone in the study of contact linguistics . Ferguson is also widely noted for his seminal article on diglossia, published in 1959 and (reprinted since then in other publications) and frequently cited by others, listed by Google Scholar as having been cited over 4,000 times
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Spanish Language
The SPANISH LANGUAGE (/ˈspænɪʃ/ ( listen ); Español (help ·info )), also called the CASTILIAN LANGUAGE (/kæˈstɪliən/ ( listen ), castellano (help ·info )), is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain
Spain
and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers around the world. It is usually considered the world\'s second-most spoken native language , after Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
. Spanish is a part of the Ibero-Romance group of languages , which evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin in Iberia after the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
in the 5th century
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Italian Language
ITALIAN ( italiano (help ·info ) or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language
Romance language
. By most measures, Italian, together with Sardinian , is the closest to Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy
Italy
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, San Marino
San Marino
, Vatican City and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia
Croatia
)
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Grammatical Person
GRAMMATICAL PERSON, in linguistics , is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person). Put in simple colloquial English, first person is that which includes the speaker, namely, "I," "we," "me," and "us," second person is the person or people to whom are spoken, literally, "you," and third person includes all that is not listed above. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns . It also frequently affects verbs , and sometimes nouns or possessive relationships
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