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Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
(Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic
Arabic
or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic
Arabic
dialect spoken in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania. It includes Moroccan Arabic, Algerian Arabic, Tunisian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, and Hassaniya Arabic. Speakers of Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
call their language Derja, Derija or Darija (Arabic: الدارجة‎; meaning "to rise or advance step by step"[2])
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Darja, Iran
Darreh Ja
Darreh Ja
(Persian: دره جا‎, also Romanized as Darreh Jā; also known as Darjā)[1] is a village in Mahan Rural District, Mahan District, Kerman
Kerman
County, Kerman
Kerman
Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 12, in 6 families.[2] References[edit]^ Darreh Ja
Darreh Ja
can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3764159" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
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Tunisia
Islam
Islam
(state religion; 99.1% Sunni[9] others (1%; including Christian, Jewish, Shia, Bahá'í)[9]Demonym TunisianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic[12][13]• PresidentBeji Caid Essebsi• Head of GovernmentYoussef ChahedLegislature Assembly of the Representatives of the PeopleFormation•  Husainid Dynasty
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Grammatical Number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").[2] In many languages, including English, the number categories are singular and plural. Some languages also have a dual, trial, and paucal number or other arrangements. The count distinctions typically, but not always, correspond to the actual count of the referents of the marked noun or pronoun. The word "number" is also used in linguistics to describe the distinction between certain grammatical aspects that indicate the number of times an event occurs, such as the semelfactive aspect, the iterative aspect, etc
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Grammatical Person
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person). Put in simple colloquial English, first person is that which includes the speaker, namely, "I," "we," "me," and "us," second person is the person or people spoken to, literally, "you," and third person includes all that is not listed above.[2] Grammatical person
Grammatical person
typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns
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Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
(Arabic: الأنْدَلُس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, a part of southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control
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Charles A. Ferguson
Charles Albert Ferguson (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University. He was one of the founders of sociolinguistics and is best known for his work on diglossia. The TOEFL
TOEFL
test was created under his leadership at the Center for Applied Linguistics in Washington, DC. Ferguson was also the leader of a team of linguists in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
under the Ford Foundation's Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching
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Linguists
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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Mozarabic
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin
Late Latin
and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania
Hispania
from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).[2] This set of Latin
Latin
dialects came to be called the Mozarabic language
Mozarabic language
by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. The term is inaccurate, because it refers to the Christians who spoke Andalusi Romance, as a part of the Romance dialectic linguistic continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam
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Lebanon
Coordinates: 33°50′N 35°50′E / 33.833°N 35.833°E / 33.833; 35.833Lebanese Republic الجمهورية اللبنانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-LubnānīyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: كلّنا للوطن Kulluna lil-watan All Of Us, For the Country!Capital and largest city Beirut 33°54′N 35°32′E / 33.900°N 35.533°E / 33.900; 35.533Official languages Arabic[nb 1]Recognised languages FrenchDemonym LebaneseGovernment Unitary parliamentary multi-confessionalist republic[1]• PresidentMichel Aoun[2]• Prime MinisterSaad Hariri• Speaker of the ParliamentNabih BerriLegislature ParliamentEstablishment• Greater Lebanon1 September 1920• Constitution23 May 1926• Independence declared22 November 1943• Independence (Joined U
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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Bedouin
The Bedouin
Bedouin
(/ˈbɛdu.ɪn/;[10] Arabic: بَدَوِي badawī) is a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, and the Levant.[11] The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic
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Lexicon
A lexicon, word-hoard, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical). In linguistics, a lexicon is a language's inventory of lexemes. The word "lexicon" derives from the Greek λεξικόν (lexicon), neuter of λεξικός (lexikos) meaning "of or for words."[1] Linguistic theories generally regard human languages as consisting of two parts: a lexicon, essentially a catalogue of a language's words (its wordstock); and a grammar, a system of rules which allow for the combination of those words into meaningful sentences. The lexicon is also thought to include bound morphemes, which cannot stand alone as words (such as most affixes).[2] In some analyses, compound words and certain classes of idiomatic expressions and other collocations are also considered to be part of the lexicon
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Panticeu
Panticeu
Panticeu
(Hungarian: Páncélcseh; German: Böhmischhofen) is a commune in the northern part of Cluj County, Romania. It is composed of five villages: Cătălina (Szentkatolnadorna), Cubleșu Someșan (Magyarköblös), Dârja (Magyarderzse), Panticeu
Panticeu
and Sărata (Szótelke). Demographics[edit] According to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 2,001 people living in this commune
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Mauritania
Coordinates: 20°N 12°W / 20°N 12°W / 20; -12 Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Mauritania الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية (Arabic) al-Jumhūrīyah al-Islāmīyah al-Mūrītānīyah République islamique de Mauritanie  (French)FlagSealMotto: شرف إخاء عدل (Arabic) "Honor, Fraternity, Justice"Anthem: نشيد وطني موريتاني (English: "National anthem of Mauritania")Location of
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Western Sahara
Western Sahara
Sahara
(/- səˈhɑːrə, -ˈhɛərə, -ˈhærə/ ( listen);[2] Arabic: الصحراء الغربية‎‎ aṣ-Ṣaḥrā’ al-Gharbīyah, Berber languages: Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara
Sahara
Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco
Morocco
proper to the north, Algeria
Algeria
to the northeast, Mauritania
Mauritania
to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres (103,000 sq mi). It is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world, mainly consisting of desert flatlands
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