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Maghrebi Arabic
MAGHREBI ARABIC, or _MAGHREBI DARIJA_, is the principal spoken language in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region, including Morocco
Morocco
, Algeria
Algeria
, Tunisia and Libya
Libya
. It includes Moroccan Arabic , Algerian Arabic , Tunisian Arabic
Arabic
and Libyan Arabic . It is sometimes referred to as WESTERN ARABIC (as opposed to the Eastern Arabic
Arabic
known as Mashriqi Arabic ). Speakers of Maghrebi call their language DERJA, DERIJA or DARIJA. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(الفصحى _(al-)fushā_) is the preferred language of governments, legislation and judiciary of countries in Maghreb
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Darja, Iran
DARREH JA (Persian : دره جا‎‎, also Romanized as DARREH Jā; also known as DARJā) is a village in Mahan Rural District , Mahan District , Kerman County , Kerman Province , Iran
Iran
. At the 2006 census, its population was 12, in 6 families. REFERENCES * ^ Darreh Ja can be found at GEOnet Names Server , at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3764159" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database". * ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran
Iran
. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11
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Panticeu
PANTICEU (Hungarian : Páncélcseh; German : Böhmischhofen) is a commune in the northern part of Cluj County
Cluj County
, Romania
Romania
. It is composed of five villages: Cătălina (Szentkatolnadorna), Cubleșu Someșan (Magyarköblös), Dârja (Magyarderzse), Panticeu
Panticeu
and Sărata (Szótelke). DEMOGRAPHICSAccording to the census from 2002 there was a total population of 2,001 people living in this commune. Of this population, 85.25% are ethnic Romanians , 10.49% ethnic Romani and 4.19% are ethnic Hungarians
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Maghreb
The MAGHREB (/ˈmæɡrɪb/ or /ˈmʌɡrəb/ ; literally "west, sunset"; Arabic : المغرب‎‎ _al-Maɣréb_; Berber : _Tamazɣa_, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ; previously known to Europeans
Europeans
as Barbary Coast or " Barbary
Barbary
States", derived from Berber ), or the GREATER MAGHREB (Arabic : المغرب الكبير ‎‎ _al-Maghrib al-Kabīr_), is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa
North Africa
or NORTHWEST AFRICA, west of Egypt
Egypt

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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describe the _daughter languages_ within a language family as being _genetically related_. Estimates of the number of living languages vary from 5,000 to 8,000, depending on the precision of one's definition of "language", and in particular on how one classifies dialects . The 2013 edition of Ethnologue catalogs just over 7,000 living human languages. A "living language" is simply one that is used as the primary form of communication of a group of people
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Afroasiatic Languages
AFROASIATIC (AFRO-ASIATIC), also known as AFRASIAN and traditionally as HAMITO-SEMITIC (CHAMITO-SEMITIC), is a large language family of several hundred related languages and dialects. It comprises about 300 or so living languages and dialects, according to the 2009 Ethnologue estimate. It includes languages spoken predominantly in West Asia , North Africa
North Africa
, the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, and parts of the Sahel
Sahel
. Afroasiatic languages
Afroasiatic languages
have over 350 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European , Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo ). The phylum has six branches: Berber , Chadic , Cushitic , Egyptian , Omotic and Semitic . By far the most widely spoken Afroasiatic language is Arabic
Arabic

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Semitic Languages
The SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East
Middle East
. Semitic languages
Semitic languages
are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia
Western Asia
, North Africa and the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America
North America
and Europe
Europe
, with smaller communities in the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia
Central Asia
. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History , who derived the name from Shem , one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis
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Central Semitic Languages
The CENTRAL SEMITIC LANGUAGES are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(which include Aramaic , Ugaritic , and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician ). In this reckoning, Central Semitic itself is one of three divisions of Semitic along with East Semitic ( Akkadian
Akkadian
and Eblaite ) and South Semitic (South Arabian and the Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
)
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Arabic Languages
The ARABIC language family consists of all of the descendants of Proto-Arabic , including: * Old Arabic
Old Arabic
, the language of northwestern Arabia in the pre-Islamic period and its varieties: * Northern Old Arabic
Old Arabic
(including Safaitic and Hismaic) * Old Hejazi * Classical Arabic , the liturgical language of Islam which emerged in the 7th century AD,* Neo-Arabic, the descendants of spoken Old Arabic, including: * Maltese * Colloquial Arabic * Western Arabic * Eastern Arabic * Modern Standard Arabic , the standardized variety of Arabic used since the 19th century and modernized version of the liturgical language of IslamNOTES * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Arabian". Glottolog 2.7 . Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History
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Writing System
A WRITING SYSTEM is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication . While both writing and speech are useful in conveying messages , writing differs in also being a reliable form of information storage and transfer . The processes of encoding and decoding writing systems involve shared understanding between writers and readers of the meaning behind the sets of characters that make up a script. Writing
Writing
is usually recorded onto a durable medium , such as paper or electronic storage , although non-durable methods may also be used, such as writing on a computer display , in sand, or by skywriting . The general attributes of writing systems can be placed into broad categories such as alphabets , syllabaries , or logographies . Any particular system can have attributes of more than one category
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Arabic Alphabet
_ Egyptian hieroglyphs _ 32 c. BCE * _ Hieratic _ 32 c. BCE * _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE * _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE * _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE * _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE * Samaritan 6 c. BCE* _ Libyco-Berber 3 c. BCE_ * Tifinagh * _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE* Aramaic 8 c. BCE * _ Kharoṣṭhī _ 4 c. BCE* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE * Brahmic family _(see)_ * E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE * Hangul (core letters only) 1443* Devanagari 13 c. CE * Canadian syllabics 1840 * Hebrew 3 c. BCE* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE * _Avestan _ 4 c. CE * _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE* Syriac 2 c. BCE * _ Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE * Arabic 4 c. CE * N\'Ko 1949 CE* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE * _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c
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Romanization Of Arabic
ROMANIZATION OF ARABIC refers to the various methods and approaches that are used to formally represent varieties of Arabic, both written and spoken , in the Latin script . Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists . These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet . Different systems and strategies have been developed to address the inherent problems of rendering various Arabic varieties in the Latin script
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ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, _Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages_, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007. ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages . The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the _ Ethnologue _ (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International , which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European
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Glottolog
_GLOTTOLOG_ is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and formerly maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig , Germany. There are two components: _Languoid catalogue_, the catalog of the world's languages and language families; and _Langdoc_, the bibliography. It differs from the similar catalogue _ Ethnologue _ in several ways, in that it attempts only to accept languages which the editors have been able to confirm both exist and are distinct (varieties which have not been confirmed, but are inherited from another source, are tagged as "spurious" or "unattested"); it attempts only to classify languages into families which have been demonstrated to be valid; extensive bibliographic information is provided, especially for lesser-known languages; and, to a limited extent, alternative names are listed according to the sources which use them
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Morocco
Coordinates : 32°N 6°W / 32°N 6°W / 32; -6 Kingdom of Morocco * المملكة المغربية ( Arabic