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Magenta
Magenta
Magenta
(/məˈdʒɛntə/) is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red,[1] reddish-purple, purplish-pink, or mauvish-crimson.[2] On computer screens, it is made by mixing equal amounts of blue and red.[3] On color wheels of the RGB
RGB
(additive) and CMY (subtractive) color models, it is located midway between red and blue. It is the complementary color of green. It is one of the four colors of ink used in color printing and by an inkjet printer, along with yellow, black, and cyan, to make all the other colors. The tone of magenta used in printing is called "printer's magenta". Magenta
Magenta
took its name from an aniline dye made and patented in 1859 by the French chemist François-Emmanuel Verguin, who originally called it fuchsine
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Aniline
Aniline
Aniline
is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish
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Inkjet Printer
Inkjet printing
Inkjet printing
is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates.[1] Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer,[2] and range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines. The concept of inkjet printing originated in the 20th century, and the technology was first extensively developed in the early 1950s. Starting in the late 1970s, inkjet printers that could reproduce digital images generated by computers were developed, mainly by Epson, Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
(HP), and Canon
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SRGB Color Space
sRGB (standard Red Green Blue) is an RGB color space
RGB color space
that HP and Microsoft
Microsoft
created cooperatively in 1996 to use on monitors, printers, and the Internet. It was subsequently standardized by the IEC as IEC 61966-2-1:1999.[1] It is often the "default" color space for images that contain no color space information, especially if the images' pixels are stored in 8-bit integers per color channel. sRGB uses the ITU-R BT.709 primaries, the same as in studio monitors and HDTV,[2] a transfer function (gamma curve) typical of CRTs, and a viewing environment designed to match typical home and office viewing conditions
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Lombardy
Lombardy
Lombardy
(/ˈlɒmbərdi/ LOM-bər-dee; Italian: Lombardia [lombarˈdiːa]; Lombard: Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard) [lumbarˈdiːa], (Eastern Lombard) [lombarˈdeːa]) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres (9,206 sq mi)
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Wavelength
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats,[1][2] and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns.[3][4] Wavelength
Wavelength
is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ)
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Nanometer
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Brightness
Brightness
Brightness
is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.[1] In other words, brightness is the perception elicited by the luminance of a visual target. It is not necessarily proportional to luminance. This is a subjective attribute/property of an object being observed and one of the color appearance parameters of color appearance models. Brightness refers to an absolute term and should not be confused with Lightness.[2] Terminology The adjective bright derives from an Old English beorht with the same meaning via metathesis giving Middle English briht. The word is from a Common Germanic
Common Germanic
*berhtaz, ultimately from a PIE root with a closely related meaning, *bhereg- "white, bright". "Brightness" was formerly used as a synonym for the photometric term luminance and (incorrectly) for the radiometric term radiance
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Munsell Color System
In colorimetry, the Munsell color system
Munsell color system
is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue, value (lightness), and chroma (color purity). It was created by Professor Albert H. Munsell in the first decade of the 20th century and adopted by the USDA
USDA
as the official color system for soil research in the 1930s. Several earlier color order systems had placed colors into a three-dimensional color solid of one form or another, but Munsell was the first to separate hue, value, and chroma into perceptually uniform and independent dimensions, and he was the first to systematically illustrate the colors in three-dimensional space.[1] Munsell’s system, particularly the later renotations, is based on rigorous measurements of human subjects’ visual responses to color, putting it on a firm experimental scientific basis
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Fuchsia
About 100; see text Fuchsia
Fuchsia
( /ˈfjuːʃə/) is a genus of flowering plants that consists mostly of shrubs or small trees. The first, Fuchsia
Fuchsia
triphylla, was discovered on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola
Hispaniola
( Haiti
Haiti
and the Dominican Republic) about 1696–1697 by the French Minim monk and botanist, Charles Plumier, during his third expedition to the Greater Antilles
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Aniline Dye
Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane and other industrial chemicals. Like most volatile amines, it has the odor of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds.[6]Contents1 Structure 2 Production2.1 Related aniline derivatives3 Reactions3.1 Oxidation 3.2 Electrophilic reactions at carbon 3.3 Reactions at nitrogen3.3.1 Basicity 3.3.2 Acylation 3.3.3 N-Alkylation 3.3.4 Carbon disulfide derivatives 3.3.5 Diazotization3.4 Other reactions4 Uses 5 History5.1 Synthetic dye industry 5.2 Developments in medicine 5.3 Rocket fuel6 Toxicology and testing 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External linksStructure[edit] Aniline is a planar molecule. The amine is nearly planar owing to conjugation of the lone pair with the aryl substituent
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RYB Color Model
RYB (an abbreviation of red–yellow–blue) is a historical set of colors used in subtractive color mixing and is one commonly used set of primary colors. It is primarily used in art and design education, particularly painting. RYB predates modern scientific color theory, which has determined that cyan, magenta, and yellow are the best set of three colorants to combine, for the widest range of high-chroma colors.[1]Contents1 Color wheel 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesColor wheel[edit]RYB color wheelRYB color starRYB (red–yellow–blue) make up the primary color triad in a standard artist's color wheel. The secondary colors purple–orange–green (sometimes called violet–orange–green) make up another triad. Triads are formed by three equidistant colors on a particular color wheel
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William Perkin
Sir William Henry Perkin, FRS (12 March 1838 – 14 July 1907)[1] was a British chemist and entrepreneur best known for his serendipitous discovery of the first synthetic organic dye, mauveine, made from aniline. Though he failed in trying to synthesise quinine for the treatment of malaria, he became successful in the field of dyes after his first discovery at the age of 18.[2] Perkin set up a factory to produce the dye industrially
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Mauveine
Mauveine, also known as aniline purple and Perkin's mauve, was the first synthetic dye.[1][2] It was discovered serendipitously by William Henry Perkin
William Henry Perkin
in 1856. It is also among the first dyes to have been mass-produced.[3]Contents1 Chemistry 2 History 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksChemistry[edit] Mauveine
Mauveine
is a mixture of four related aromatic compounds differing in number and placement of methyl groups. Its organic synthesis involves dissolving aniline, p-toluidine, and o-toluidine in sulfuric acid and water in a roughly 1:1:2 ratio, then adding potassium dichromate.[4] Mauveine
Mauveine
A (C26H23N4+X−) incorporates 2 molecules of aniline, one of p-toluidine, and one of o-toluidine. Mauveine
Mauveine
B (C27H25N4+X−) incorporates one molecule each of aniline, p-toluidine, and two of o-toluidine
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Lyon
Centre: Parc de la Tête d'Or, Confluence district and the Vieux Lyon. Bottom: Pont Lafayette, Part-Dieu district with the Place Bellecour
Place Bellecour
in foreground during Festival of Lights.FlagCoat of armsMotto(s): Avant, avant, Lion le melhor. (Old Franco-Provençal: Forward, forward, Lyon
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Carbon Tetrachloride
1.831 g cm−3 at −186 °C (solid) 1.809 g cm−3 at −80 °C (solid)Melting point −22.92 °C (−9.26 °F; 250.23 K)Boiling point 76.72 °C (170.10 °F; 349.87 K) Solubility
Solubility
in water0.097 g/100 mL (0 °C) 0.081 g/100 mL (25 °C)Solubility soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, naphtha, CS2, formic acidlog P 2.64 Vapor
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