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Madras Presidency
FlagThe Madras
Madras
Presidency in 1919Historical era New Imperialism •  Established 1652 •  Disestablished 1947Colonial IndiaImperial entities of IndiaDutch India 1605–1825Danish India 1620–1869French India 1668–1954Portuguese India (1505–1961)Casa da Índia 1434–1833Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633British India (1612–1947)East India Company 1612–1757Company rule in India 1757–1858British Raj 1858–1947British rule in Burma 1824–1948Princely states 1721–1949Partition of India1947v t eThe Madras
Madras
Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St. George, and also known as Madras
Madras
Province, was an administrative subdivision (presidency) of British India
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Kalabhras
The Kalabhra dynasty
Kalabhra dynasty
(Tamil: கல்புரை Kalpurai[1]) ruled over the entire ancient Tamil country between the 3rd and the 7th century in an era of South Indian history called the Kalabhra interregnum. The Kalabhras, possibly Jain, displaced the kingdoms of the early Cholas, early Pandyas and Chera dynasties by a revolt. Information about the origin and reign of the Kalabhras is scarce. They left neither artefacts nor monuments, and the only sources of information are scattered mentions in Sangam, Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain literature. The Kalabhras were defeated by the joint efforts of the Pallavas, Pandyas and Chalukyas of Badami.Contents1 Identification 2 Evidence from literature 3 Reasons for the unpopularity 4 Patrons of literature 5 Religion 6 Fall of the Kalabhras 7 Further reading 8 Notes 9 ReferencesIdentification[edit] The origin and identity of the Kalabhras is uncertain
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Stone Age
PaleolithicLower Paleolithic Late Stone AgeHomo Control of fire Stone toolsMiddle Paleolithic Middle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic Late Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dogEpipaleolithic MesolithicMicroliths, Bow, CanoeNatufian Khiamian Tahunian Heavy Neolithic Shepherd Neolithic Trihedral Neolithic Pre- Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicNeolithic Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution, Domestication Pottery
Pottery
NeolithicPottery↓ Chalcolithicv t eThe Stone Age
Stone Age
was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface
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Ceylon
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri Lanka
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Armagon
' Armagaon or Armagon was the second colony of the English East India Company in Southern India. Its original name was Durgarazpatnam (Dugarazpatam) or Duraspatam.[1] It was chiefly inhabited by salt manufacturers. A small port 36 miles North of Pulicat
Pulicat
it was the first place occupied by the British who erected a factory here in February 1626. It was hastily abandoned in 1641 in favour of Fort St. George. East India Company pioneer Streynsham Master
Streynsham Master
(1640-1724) described the factory house as having "walls two Storeys high of one part of it, and a round Bulwart built single by itself".[1] History[edit] In the time of Gurava Naidu, the great great grandfather of Raja Gopal Naidu, some Englishmen came to the port and sent for the chief men of the place, Gurava Naidu and the accountant, Patnaswamula Armogam Mudaliar, and said they wished to build a fort there
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Karnataka
Karnataka
Karnataka
is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore
Bangalore
(Bengaluru). Karnataka
Karnataka
is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west, Goa
Goa
to the northwest, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north, Telangana
Telangana
to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the east, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the southeast, and Kerala
Kerala
to the south
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Pitt's India Act
The East India Company Act 1784, also known as Pitt's India Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain intended to address the shortcomings of the Regulating Act of 1773 by bringing the East India Company's rule in India under the control of the British Government. Named for British prime minister William Pitt the Younger, the act provided for the appointment of a Board of Control, and provided for a joint government of British India by the Company and the Crown with the government holding the ultimate authority. A six member board of controllers was setup for political activities and Court of directors for financial activities.Contents1 Background 2 Provisions of the 1784 Act 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingBackground[edit] By 1773 the East India Company was in dire financial straits and asked for assistance from the British Government
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Calcutta
Kolkata
Kolkata
/koʊlˈkɑːtə/ (Bengali pronunciation: [kolkat̪a]), formerly Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/ until 2001, is the capital of the Indian state
Indian state
of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata
Port of Kolkata
is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". In 2011, the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the population of the city and its suburbs was 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India
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Second World War
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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District Collector
A District
District
Collector, often abbreviated to Collector, is an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer in charge of revenue collection and administration of a district in India
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Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms
or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India
between 1916 and 1921. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.These are related to constitutional reforms
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Dyarchy
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double",[1] and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled")[2][a] or duumvirate (from Latin
Latin
duumvirātus, "the office of the two men")[4][b] is a form of government characterized by corule, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force. The leaders of such a system are usually known as corulers.[5] Historically, diarchy particularly referred to the system of shared rule in British India[2] established by the Government of India Acts of 1919 and 1935 which devolved some powers to local councils which had included native Indian representation since 1892. 'Duumvirate' principally referred to the offices of the various duumvirs established by the Roman Republic.[4] Both, along with less common synonyms such as biarchy[6] and tandemocracy,[7][c] are now used more generally to refer to any system of joint rule or office
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British Rule In Burma
Rangoon
Rangoon
(1853–1948)Languages English (official) BurmeseReligion Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, IslamPolitical structure ColonyMonarch •  1862–1901 Victoria •  1901–1910 Edward VII •  1910–1936 George V •  1936 Edward VIII •  1936–1947 George VIGovernor •  1923–1927 Sir Harcourt Butler (first) •  1946–1948 Sir
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Dolmen
A dolmen (/ˈdɒlmɛn/) is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of two or more vertical megaliths supporting a large flat horizontal capstone ("table"), although there are also more complex variants. Most date from the early Neolithic
Neolithic
(4000–3000 BC). Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus. In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact. It remains unclear when, why, and by whom the earliest dolmens were made. The oldest known dolmens are in Western Europe, where they were set in place around 7,000 years ago. Archaeologists still do not know who erected these dolmens, which makes it difficult to know why they did it. They are generally all regarded as tombs or burial chambers, despite the absence of clear evidence for this
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East India Company
The East India
India
Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India
India
Company and informally as John Company,[1] was an English and later British joint-stock company,[2] that was formed to pursue trade with the "East Indies"[citation needed] (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China
Qing China
and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent. Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade[citation needed], particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea, and opium
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Portuguese East India Company
The Portuguese East India Company (Portuguese: Companhia do commércio da Índia or Companhia da Índia Oriental) was a short-lived ill-fated attempt by Philip III of Portugal to create a national chartered company to look after interests in Portuguese India in the face on encroachment by the Dutch and English following the personal union of the Portuguese and Spanish Crowns.Contents1 Background 2 Proposal 3 The Company 4 The end 5 See also 6 References 7 Further readingBackground[edit] Portuguese trade with India had been a crown monopoly since the Portuguese captain Vasco da Gama opened the sea route to India in 1497-99. The monopoly had been managed by the Casa da Índia, the royal trading house founded around 1500. The Casa was responsible for the yearly India armadas
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