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MS-DOS
MS- DOS
DOS
(/ˌɛmɛsˈdɒs/ EM-es-DOSS ; acronym for MICROSOFT DISK OPERATING SYSTEM) is a discontinued operating system for x86 -based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC
IBM PC
DOS, and some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS" (which is also the generic acronym for disk operating system ). MS- DOS
DOS
was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows operating system
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Floppy Disk
A FLOPPY DISK, also called a FLOPPY, DISKETTE, or just DISK, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are read and written by a FLOPPY DISK DRIVE (FDD). Floppy disks, initially as 8-inch (200 mm) media and later in 5¼-inch (133 mm) and 3½-inch (90 mm) sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s into the mid-2000s. By the late 2000s, computers were rarely manufactured with installed floppy disk drives; 3½-inch floppy disks can be used with an external USB
USB
floppy disk drive, but USB
USB
drives for 5¼-inch, 8-inch, and non-standard diskettes are rare to non-existent. These formats are usually handled by older equipment
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Graphical User Interface
The GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI /ɡuːiː/ ), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces , typed command labels or text navigation. GUIs were introduced in reaction to the perceived steep learning curve of command-line interfaces (CLIs), which require commands to be typed on a computer keyboard . The actions in a GUI are usually performed through direct manipulation of the graphical elements. Beyond computers, GUIs are used in many handheld mobile devices such as MP3
MP3
players, portable media players, gaming devices, smartphones and smaller household, office and industrial controls
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Proprietary Software
PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code , but sometimes patent rights. CONTENTS * 1 Software becoming proprietary * 2 Legal basis * 2.1 Limitations * 3 Exclusive rights * 3.1 Use of the software * 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code * 3.3 Redistribution * 4 Interoperability with software and hardware * 4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols * 4.2 Proprietary APIs * 4.3 Vendor lock-in * 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations * 5 Abandonment by owners * 6 Formerly open-source software * 7 Pricing and economics * 8 Examples * 9 See also * 10 References SOFTWARE BECOMING PROPRIETARYUntil the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe computers , machines in specially air-conditioned computer rooms—were leased to customers rather than sold
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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs
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OEM
An ORIGINAL EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURER (OEM) is a company that produces parts and equipment that may be marketed by another manufacturer. For example, if Acme Manufacturing Co. makes power cords that are used on IBM computers, Acme is an OEM. However, the term is used in several other ways, which causes ambiguity . It sometimes means the maker of a system that includes other companies' subsystems, an end-product producer, an automotive part that is manufactured by the same company that produced the original part used in the automobile's assembly, or a value-added reseller . CONTENTS * 1 Automotive parts * 2 Computer software * 3 Economies of scale * 4 See also * 5 References AUTOMOTIVE PARTSWhen referring to auto parts, OEM refers to the manufacturer of the original equipment, that is, the parts assembled and installed during the construction of a new vehicle
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Hardware Abstraction Layer
HARDWARE ABSTRACTIONS are sets of routines in software that emulate some platform -specific details, giving programs direct access to the hardware resources. They often allow programmers to write device -independent, high performance applications by providing standard operating system (OS) calls to hardware. The process of abstracting pieces of hardware is often done from the perspective of a CPU
CPU
. Each type of CPU
CPU
has a specific instruction set architecture or ISA. The ISA represents the primitive operations of the machine that are available for use by assembly programmers and compiler writers. One of the main functions of a compiler is to allow a programmer to write an algorithm in a high-level language without having to care about CPU-specific instructions. Then it is the job of the compiler to generate a CPU-specific executable
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Upward Compatible
FORWARD COMPATIBILITY or UPWARD COMPATIBILITY is a design characteristic that allows a system to accept input intended for a later version of itself. The concept can be applied to entire systems, electrical interfaces , telecommunication signals , data communication protocols , file formats , and computer programming languages . A standard supports forward compatibility if a product that complies with earlier versions can "gracefully " process input designed for later versions of the standard; the ability of a system to select known input and ignore unknown input also depends on whether the new standard is backward compatible . The objective for forward compatible technology is for old devices to recognise when data has been generated for new devices. Forward compatibility is not the same as extensibility . A forward compatible design can process at least some of the data from a future version of itself. An extensible design makes upgrading easy
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Zilog Z8000
The Z8000 ("zee-eight-thousand") is a 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Zilog
Zilog
in 1979. The architecture was designed by Bernard Peuto while the logic and physical implementation was done by Masatoshi Shima , assisted by a small group of people. The Z8000 was not Z80 -compatible, and although it saw steady use well into the 1990s, it was not very widely used. However, the Z16C01 and Z16C02 Serial Communication Controllers still use the Z8000 core
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Motorola 68000
The MOTOROLA 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the M68K or MOTOROLA 68K, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/ 32-bit CISC microprocessor , which implements a 32-bit instruction set , with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus , but with a 16-bit main ALU and a 16-bit external data bus , designed and marketed by Motorola
Motorola
Semiconductor Products Sector (later Freescale Semiconductor
Freescale Semiconductor
, now NXP ). Introduced in 1979 with HMOS
HMOS
technology as the first member of the successful 32-bit m 68k
68k
family of microprocessors, it is generally software forward-compatible with the rest of the line despite being limited to a 16-bit wide external bus. After 38 years in production , the 68000 architecture is still in use
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Multi-user
MULTI-USER software is software that allows access by multiple users of a computer . Time-sharing
Time-sharing
systems are multi-user systems. Most batch processing systems for mainframe computers may also be considered "multi-user", to avoid leaving the CPU idle while it waits for I/O operations to complete. However, the term "multitasking " is more common in this context. An example is a UNIX server where multiple remote users have access (such as via Secure Shell
Secure Shell
) to the Unix
Unix
shell prompt at the same time. Another example uses multiple X Window sessions spread across multiple terminals powered by a single machine - this is an example of the use of thin client . Similar functions were also available under MP/M , Concurrent DOS , Multiuser DOS and FlexOS
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Text User Interface
TEXT-BASED USER INTERFACE (TUI), also called TEXTUAL USER INTERFACE or TERMINAL USER INTERFACE, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces . TUIs display computer graphics in text mode . An advanced TUI may, like GUIs, use the entire screen area and accept mouse and other inputs
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Seattle Computer Products
SEATTLE COMPUTER PRODUCTS (SCP) was a Seattle
Seattle
, Washington , microcomputer hardware company which was one of the first manufacturers of computer systems based on the 16-bit Intel
Intel
8086 processor . SCP began shipping its first S-100 bus 8086 CPU boards to customers in November, 1979, about 21 months before IBM
IBM
introduced its Personal Computer which was based on the slower 8088 and introduced the 8-bit ISA bus
ISA bus
. SCP shipped an operating system for that hardware about a year before the release of the PC, which was modified by Microsoft
Microsoft
for the PC and renamed IBM
IBM
PC DOS . SCP was staffed partly by high-school students from nearby communities who soldered and assembled the computers. Some of them would later work for Microsoft
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Closed Source
PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code , but sometimes patent rights. CONTENTS * 1 Software becoming proprietary * 2 Legal basis * 2.1 Limitations * 3 Exclusive rights * 3.1 Use of the software * 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code * 3.3 Redistribution * 4 Interoperability with software and hardware * 4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols * 4.2 Proprietary APIs * 4.3 Vendor lock-in * 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations * 5 Abandonment by owners * 6 Formerly open-source software * 7 Pricing and economics * 8 Examples * 9 See also * 10 References SOFTWARE BECOMING PROPRIETARYUntil the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe computers , machines in specially air-conditioned computer rooms—were leased to customers rather than sold
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Software Release Life Cycle
A SOFTWARE RELEASE LIFE CYCLE is the sum of the stages of development and maturity for a piece of computer software : ranging from its initial development to its eventual release, and including updated versions of the released version to help improve software or fix software bugs still present in the software. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Stages of development * 2.1 Pre-alpha * 2.2 Alpha * 2.3 Beta * 2.3.1 Open and closed beta * 2.4 Release candidate * 3 Release * 3.1 Release to manufacturing (RTM) * 3.2 General availability (GA) * 3.3 Release to web (RTW) * 4 Support * 4.1 End-of-life * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Bibliography HISTORYUsage of the "alpha/beta" test terminology originated at IBM
IBM
. As long ago as the 1950s (and probably earlier), IBM
IBM
used similar terminology for their hardware development. "A" test was the verification of a new product before public announcement
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Package Manager
A PACKAGE MANAGER or PACKAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is a collection of software tools that automates the process of installing, upgrading, configuring, and removing computer programs for a computer 's operating system in a consistent manner. A package manager deals with packages, distributions of software and data in archive files . Packages contain metadata , such as the software's name, description of its purpose, version number, vendor, checksum , and a list of dependencies necessary for the software to run properly. Upon installation, metadata is stored in a local package database. Package managers typically maintain a database of software dependencies and version information to prevent software mismatches and missing prerequisites. They work closely with software repositories , binary repository managers , and app stores . Package managers are designed to eliminate the need for manual installs and updates
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