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MHNT
The Muséum de Toulouse, sometimes known as MHNT or Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de la ville de Toulouse, is a museum of natural history in Toulouse, France. It is located in the Busca-Montplaisir, and houses a collection of more than 2.5 million items.Contents1 History 2 Permanent exhibitions 3 Collections3.1 Prehistory 3.2 Botany 3.3 Entomology3.3.1 Coleoptera 3.3.2 Lepidoptera 3.3.3 Orthoptera3.4 Mineralogy 3.5 Ornithology 3.6 Osteology 3.7 Paleontology3.7.1 Invertebrates 3.7.2 Vertebrates4 Henri Gaussen
Henri Gaussen
Botanical Garden 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (November 2011)The museum was founded in 1796 by the naturalist Philippe-Isidore Picot de Lapeyrouse. It was at that time housed in the old buildings of the monastery of the carmelite friars. It was opened to the public in 1865 in its present location and under the directorship of Édouard Filhol
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Colombia
Coordinates: 4°N 72°W / 4°N 72°W / 4; -72 Republic
Republic
of Colombia República de Colombia  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish) "Freedom and Order"Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible!  (Spanish) O unfading glory!Location of  Colombia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Bogotá 4°35′N 74°4′W / 4.583°N 74.067°W / 4.583; -74.067Official languages SpanishaRecognized regional languages 68 ethnic languages and dialects
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Mesolithic
In Old World archaeology, the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
(Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Neolithic, the three periods together forming the Stone Age. The term "Epipaleolithic" is often used for areas outside northern Europe, but was also the preferred synonym used by French archaeologists until the 1960s. The type of culture associated with the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
varies between areas, but it is associated with a decline in the group hunting of large animals in favour of a broader hunter-gatherer way of life, and the development of more sophisticated and typically smaller lithic tools and weapons than the heavy chipped equivalents typical of the Paleolithic
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Life
Life
Life
on Earth:Non-cellular life[note 1] [note 2]Viruses[note 3] ViroidsCellular lifeDomain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain EukaryaArchaeplastida SAR Excavata Amoebozoa OpisthokontaThis article is one of a series on: Life
Life
in the UniverseAstrobiologyHabitability in the Solar SystemHabitability of Venus Life
Life
on Earth Habitability of Mars Habitability of Enceladus Habitability of Europa Habitability of Titan Life
Life
outside the Solar SystemCircumstellar habitable zone Exoplanetology Planetary habitability SETIv t e Life
Life
is a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as signaling and self-sustaining processes, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased, or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate
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Demography
Demography
Demography
(from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement"[1]) is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. Demography
Demography
encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, aging, and death. As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics)
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Ecosystem
An ecosystem can be defined as a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water and mineral soil.[2] However, ecosystems can be defined in many ways.[3] The biotic and abiotic components interact through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[4] Ecosystems include a network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment.[5] Ecosystems can be of any size but one ecosystem has a specific, limited space.[6] Some scientists view the entire planet as one ecosystem.[7] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems comes primarily from the sun, through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Animals also play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through ecoystems. They influence the amount of plant and microbial biomass that lives in the system
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Antoine Meillet
Paul Jules Antoine Meillet
Antoine Meillet
(French: [ɑ̃twan meje]; 11 November 1866, Moulins, France – 21 September 1936, Châteaumeillant, France) was one of the most important French linguists of the early 20th century. He began his studies at the Paris-Sorbonne University, where he was influenced by Michel Bréal, Ferdinand de Saussure
Ferdinand de Saussure
and the members of the L'Année Sociologique. In 1890, he was part of a research trip to the Caucasus, where he studied the Armenian language. After his return, de Saussure had gone back to Geneva so he continued the series of lectures on comparative linguistics that the Swiss linguist had given. Meillet completed his doctorate, Research on the Use of the Genitive-Accusative in Old Slavonic, in 1897
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Edward John Dunn
Edward John Dunn
Edward John Dunn
(1 November 1844 – 20 April 1937) was an English-born Australian geologist, winner of the 1905 Murchison Medal. Biface
Biface
Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
Former collection of Edward John Dunn
Edward John Dunn
- Museum of ToulouseContents1 Early life 2 Geological career 3 Late life 4 ReferencesEarly life[edit] Dunn was born at Bedminster near Bristol, England, the son of Edward Herbert Dunn and Betsy Robinson Dunn. The family emigrated to New South Wales in 1849, initially living near Goulburn, New South Wales then in Beechworth, Victoria
Beechworth, Victoria
from 1856. Dunn was educated at the Beechworth Church of England
England
school and later by a tutor
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Henri Breuil
Henri Édouard Prosper Breuil (28 February 1877 – 14 August 1961), often referred to as Abbé Breuil, was a French Catholic priest and member of the Society of Jesus, archaeologist, anthropologist, ethnologist and geologist. He is noted for his studies of cave art in the Somme and Dordogne
Dordogne
valleys as well as in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Ireland, China with Teilhard de Chardin, Ethiopia, British Somaliland, and especially Southern Africa.Contents1 Life 2 Cave paintings 3 See also 4 Selected English bibliography 5 Further reading 6 References 7 External linksLife[edit] Breuil was born at Mortain, Manche, France, and was the son of Albert Breuil, magistrate, and Lucie Morio De L'Isle.[1] He received his education at the Seminary of St. Sulpice and the Sorbonne
Sorbonne
and was ordained in 1900 but was given permission to pursue his research interests. He was a man of deep religious faith[2] and learning
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Téviec
Téviec
Téviec
or Théviec is an island situated to the west of the isthmus of the peninsula of Quiberon, near Saint-Pierre- Quiberon
Quiberon
in Brittany, France. The island is an important archaeological site due to its occupation during the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period. Many archaeological finds have been made dating back to over 6,700 years before the present day, including the remains of over 20 people
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Palaeontology
Paleontology
Paleontology
or palaeontology (/ˌpeɪliɒnˈtɒlədʒi, ˌpæli-, -ən-/) is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene
Holocene
Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC. The science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, and developed rapidly in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on (gen
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Neolithic
PaleolithicLower PaleolithicEarly Stone Age Homo Control of fire Stone tools Middle PaleolithicMiddle Stone Age Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis Homo
Homo
sapiens Recent African origin of modern humans Upper PaleolithicLater Stone Age Behavioral modernity, Atlatl, Origin of the domestic dog Epipalaeolithic Mesolithic<
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Reims
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Reims
Reims
(/riːmz/; also spelled Rheims; French: [ʁɛ̃s]), a city in the Grand Est
Grand Est
region of France, lies 129 km (80 mi) east-northeast of Paris. The 2013 census recorded 182,592 inhabitants (Rémoises (feminine) and Rémois (masculine)) in the city of Reims proper (the commune), and 317,611 inhabitants in the metropolitan area (aire urbaine). Its river, the Vesle, is a tributary of the Aisne. Founded by the Gauls, it became a major city during the period of the Roman Empire.[1] Reims
Reims
played a prominent ceremonial role in French monarchical history as the traditional site of the crowning of the kings of France
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Plagne, Haute-Garonne
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.Plagne is a commune in the Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
department in southwestern France. Population[edit]Historical populationYear Pop. ±%1962 44 —    1968 55 +25.0%1975 70 +27.3%1982 58 −17.1%1990 60 +3.4%1999 88 +46.7%2008 93 +5.7%


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Holocene
The Holocene
Holocene
( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/)[2][3] is the current geological epoch. It began after the Pleistocene[4], approximately 11,650 cal years before present.[5] The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary
Quaternary
period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent".[6] It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene
Holocene
encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Bronze Age
The Bronze
Bronze
Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze
Bronze
Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze- Iron
Iron
system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze
Bronze
Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere
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