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MATLAB
MATLAB
MATLAB
(matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB
MATLAB
allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, C#, Java, Fortran
Fortran
and Python. Although MATLAB
MATLAB
is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses the MuPAD
MuPAD
symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing abilities
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960
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Software License
A software license is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law, with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form.[2] The only exception is software in the public domain. A typical software license grants the licensee, typically an end-user, permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.Contents1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law1.1 Ownership vs
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Weak Typing
In computer programming, programming languages are often colloquially classified as to whether the language's type system makes it strongly typed or weakly typed (loosely typed). Generally, a strongly typed language has stricter typing rules at compile time, which imply that errors and exceptions are more likely to happen during compilation. Most of these rules affect variable assignment, return values and function calling
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Dynamic Typing
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.[1] These types formalize and enforce the otherwise implicit categories the programmer uses for data structures and components (e.g. "string", "array of float", "function returning boolean"). The main purpose of a type system is to reduce possibilities for bugs in computer programs[2] by defining interfaces between different parts of a computer program, and then checking that the parts have been connected in a consistent way. This checking can happen statically (at compile time), dynamically (at run time), or as a combination of static and dynamic checking
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Type System
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.[1] These types formalize and enforce the otherwise implicit categories the programmer uses for data structures and components (e.g. "string", "array of float", "function returning boolean"). The main purpose of a type system is to reduce possibilities for bugs in computer programs[2] by defining interfaces between different parts of a computer program, and then checking that the parts have been connected in a consistent way. This checking can happen statically (at compile time), dynamically (at run time), or as a combination of static and dynamic checking
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Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function[1] is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. An example is the function that relates each real number x to its square x2. The output of a function f corresponding to an input x is denoted by f(x) (read "f of x"). In this example, if the input is −3, then the output is 9, and we may write f(−3) = 9. Likewise, if the input is 3, then the output is also 9, and we may write f(3) = 9. (The same output may be produced by more than one input, but each input gives only one output.) The input variable(s) are sometimes referred to as the argument(s) of the function. Functions of various kinds are "the central objects of investigation"[2] in most fields of modern mathematics. There are many ways to describe or represent a function. Some functions may be defined by a formula or algorithm that tells how to compute the output for a given input
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Software Design
Software
Software
design is the process by which an agent creates a specification of a software artifact, intended to accomplish goals, using a set of primitive components and subject to constraints.[1] Software
Software
design may refer to either "all the activity involved in conceptualizing, framing, implementing, commissioning, and ultimately modifying complex systems" or "the activity following requirements specification and before programming, as ... [in] a stylized software engineering process."[2] Software
Software
design usually involves problem solving and planning a software solution
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm (/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ ( listen) AL-gə-ridh-əm) is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems. Algorithms can perform calculation, data processing and automated reasoning tasks. An algorithm is an effective method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time[1] and in a well-defined formal language[2] for calculating a function.[3] Starting from an initial state and initial input (perhaps empty),[4] the instructions describe a computation that, when executed, proceeds through a finite[5] number of well-defined successive states, eventually producing "output"[6] and terminating at a final ending state. The transition from one state to the next is not necessarily deterministic; some algorithms, known as randomized algorithms, incorporate random input.[7] The concept of algorithm has existed for centuries and the use of the concept can be ascribed to Greek mathematicians, e.g
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User Interface
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, and process controls. The design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology. Generally, the goal of user interface design is to produce a user interface which makes it easy (self-explanatory), efficient, and enjoyable (user-friendly) to operate a machine in the way which produces the desired result
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Procedural Programming
Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based upon the concept of the procedure call. Procedures, also known as routines, subroutines, or functions (not to be confused with mathematical functions, but similar to those used in functional programming), simply contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself. The first major procedural programming languages first appeared circa 1960, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL
COBOL
and BASIC.[1] Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980.[1] Go is an example of a more modern procedural language, first published in 2009. Computer processors provide hardware support for procedural programming through a stack register and instructions for calling procedures and returning from them
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Imperative Programming
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state. In much the same way that the imperative mood in natural languages expresses commands, an imperative program consists of commands for the computer to perform. Imperative programming focuses on describing how a program operates. The term is often used in contrast to declarative programming, which focuses on what the program should accomplish without specifying how the program should achieve the result.Contents1 Imperative and procedural programming 2 Rationale and foundations of imperative programming 3 History of imperative and object-oriented languages 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesImperative and procedural programming[edit] Procedural programming is a type of imperative programming in which the program is built from one or more procedures (also termed subroutines or functions)
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Functional Programming
In computer science, functional programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions and avoids changing-state and mutable data. It is a declarative programming paradigm, which means programming is done with expressions[1] or declarations[2] instead of statements
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Multi-paradigm Programming Language
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects, or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping a code into units along with the state that is modified by the code
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Programming Paradigm
Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features. Languages can be classified into multiple paradigms. Some paradigms are concerned mainly with implications for the execution model of the language, such as allowing side effects, or whether the sequence of operations is defined by the execution model. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping a code into units along with the state that is modified by the code
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Commercial Software
Commercial software, or seldom payware, is computer software that is produced for sale[1] or that serves commercial purposes. Commercial software can be proprietary software or free and open source software.[2][3][4]Contents1 Background and challenge 2 Commercialization models for software2.1 Proprietary software commercialization 2.2 Free and open-source software
Free and open-source software
commercialization3 Reception and impact 4 See also 5 ReferencesBackground and challenge[edit] While software creation by programming is a time and labor-intensive process, comparable to the creation of physical goods, the reproduction, duplication and sharing of software as digital goods is in comparison disproportionally easy. No special machines or expensive additional resources are required, unlike almost all physical goods and products. Once a software is created it can be copied in infinite numbers, for almost zero cost, by anyone
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