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M1819 Hall Rifle
Evolution of the modern rifle: Top: Baker rifle, an early 19th-century flintlock rifle. Second: Pattern 1853 Enfield, a mid 19th-century caplock rifled musket. Third: Dreyse needle gun, the first standard issue military breechloading rifle. Fourth: Henry rifle, the first successful lever action repeating rifle. Fifth: Lebel Model 1886 rifle, a late 19th-century bolt-action rifle and the first to use smokeless powder. Sixth: M1 Garand, an early 20th-century semi-automatic rifle and the first to be adopted as standard military issue. Seventh: АК-47, a mid 20th-century gas-operated, magazine-fed automatic rifle. Eighth: FAMAS, a late 20th-century selective fire, bullpup assault rifle.A rifle is a portable long-barrelled firearm designed for precision shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore walls
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Rifle (other)
A rifle is a firearm with a stock and a barrel that has a spiral groove or grooves ("rifling") cut into its interior. Rifle
Rifle
or The Rifle(s) may also refer to:Contents1 Military 2 Entertainment 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMilitary[edit]The Rifles, a regiment of the British Army Rifle
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Deflagration
Deflagration
Deflagration
(Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it. Most "fires" found in daily life, from flames to explosions, are deflagrations. Deflagration
Deflagration
is different from detonation, which propagates supersonically through shock waves. This means that when a substance detonates, it decomposes extremely quickly instead of deflagration. Black powder is an example of a substance that deflagrates when it is ignited.Contents1 Applications 2 Oil/wax fire and water 3 Flame
Flame
physics 4 Damaging events 5 See also 6 ReferencesApplications[edit] In engineering applications, deflagrations are easier to control than detonations
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Rifling
In firearms, rifling is the helical groove pattern that is machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting. This spin serves to gyroscopically stabilize the projectile by conservation of angular momentum, improving its aerodynamic stability and accuracy over smoothbore designs. Rifling
Rifling
is often described by its twist rate, which indicates the distance the rifling takes to complete one full revolution, such as "1 turn in 10 inches" (1:10 inches), or "1 turn in 254 mm" (1:254 mm)
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Machining
Machining
Machining
is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing,[1] in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools (in addition to just power tools and hand tools). Machining
Machining
is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites.[2] A person who specializes in machining is called a machinist. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop
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Cutting Tool
In the context of machining, a cutting tool or cutter is any tool that is used to remove material from the work piece by means of shear deformation. Cutting
Cutting
may be accomplished by single-point or multipoint tools. Single-point tools are used in turning, shaping, planing and similar operations, and remove material by means of one cutting edge. Milling and drilling tools are often multipoint tools. Grinding tools are also multipoint tools. Each grain of abrasive functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge (although of high negative rake angle), and shears a tiny chip. Cutting
Cutting
tool materials must be harder than the material which is to be cut, and the tool must be able to withstand the heat generated in the metal-cutting process. Also, the tool must have a specific geometry, with clearance angles designed so that the cutting edge can contact the workpiece without the rest of the tool dragging on the workpiece surface
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Air Rifles
An air gun is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which relies on an exothermic chemical oxidation (deflagration) of combustible propellants to generate propulsive energy. Both the long gun and handgun forms (air rifle and air pistol) typically propel metallic projectiles, that are either diabolo-shaped pellets, or spherical shots called BBs. Certain types of air guns (usually rifles) may also propel darts or arrows. The first air guns were developed as early as the 1500s. They have been used in hunting, sporting and warfare
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Personnel Halting And Stimulation Response Rifle
The personnel halting and stimulation response rifle (PHASR) is a prototype non-lethal laser dazzler developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate, U.S. Department of Defense.[1] Its purpose is to temporarily disorient and blind a target. Blinding laser weapons have been tested in the past, but were banned under the 1995 UN Protocol on Blinding Laser
Laser
Weapons, which the United States acceded to on 21 January 2009.[2] The PHASR rifle, a low-intensity laser, is not prohibited under this regulation, as the blinding effect is intended to be temporary. It also uses a two-wavelength laser.[3] The PHASR was tested at Kirtland Air Force Base, part of the Air Force Research Laboratory
Air Force Research Laboratory
Directed Energy Directorate in New Mexico. See also[edit]Veiling-glare laser Directed-energy weaponReferences[edit]^ Eva D
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War
War
War
is a state of armed conflict between states or societies. It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. An absence of war is usually called "peace". Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of types of war, or of wars in general.[1] Total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature,[2] others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances.[3] The deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start, is World War
War
II, from 1939 to 1945, with 60–85 million deaths, followed by the Mongol conquests[4] at up to 60 million
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Hunting
Hunting
Hunting
is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so. Hunting
Hunting
wildlife or feral animals is most commonly done by humans for food, recreation, to remove predators that are dangerous to humans or domestic animals, or for trade. Lawful hunting is distinguished from poaching, which is the illegal killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species. The species that are hunted are referred to as game or prey and are usually mammals and birds. Hunting
Hunting
can also be a means of pest control
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Shooting Sports
Shooting sports
Shooting sports
is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns,[1] rifles[2] and shotguns[3]) and bows/crossbows.[4][5] Different disciplines of shooting sports can be categorized by equipment, shooting distances, targets, time limits and degrees of athleticism involved. Shooting sports
Shooting sports
may involve both team and individual competition, and team performance is usually assessed by summing the scores of the individual team members
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Projectile
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.[1] Although any object in motion through space (for example a thrown baseball) may be called a projectile, the term more commonly refers to a ranged weapon.[2][3] Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory.Contents1 Motive force 2 Delivery projectiles 3 Sport projectiles 4 Kinetic projectiles 5 Wired projectiles 6 Typical projectile speeds 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksMotive force[edit] See also: Projectile
Projectile
motion Projectile
Projectile
and cartridge case for the massive World War II
World War II
Schwerer Gustav artillery piece. Most projectile weapons use the compression or expansion of gases as their motive force.Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions
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Bullet
A bullet is a component of firearm ammunition and is the projectile expelled from the firearm's barrel. The term is from Middle French and originated as the diminutive of the word boulle (boullet), which means "small ball".[1] Bullets are made of a variety of materials such as copper, lead, steel, polymer, rubber and even wax. They are available either singly as in muzzleloading and cap and ball firearms,[2] or as a component of paper cartridges[3] and much more commonly metallic cartridges.[4] Bullets are made in a large number of shapes and constructions depending on the intended applications, including specialized functions such as hunting, target shooting, training and combat. Though the word "bullet" is often used incorrectly in colloquial language to refer to a cartridge, a bullet is not a cartridge but rather a component of one.[5] A cartridge is a combination package of the bullet, casing, propellant and primer
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Propellant
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object. Common propellants are energetic materials and consist of a fuel like gasoline, jet fuel, rocket fuel, and an oxidizer. Propellants are burned or otherwise decomposed to produce the propellant gas. Other propellants are simply liquids that can readily be vaporized. In rockets and aircraft, propellants are used to produce a gas that can be directed through a nozzle, thereby producing thrust. In rockets, rocket propellant produces an exhaust, and the exhausted material is usually expelled under pressure through a nozzle. The pressure may be from a compressed gas, or a gas produced by a chemical reaction. The exhaust material may be a gas, liquid, plasma, or, before the chemical reaction, a solid, liquid, or gel
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Firearm
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.[1][2][3] If gas pressurization is not achieved via propellant combustion but through mechanical gas compression, then the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm.[4] The first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance,[5], which was later used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an. In 13th century, the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon, widely considered to be the true ancestor of all firearms. The technology gradually spread through the rest of East Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and Europe
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Black Powder
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive. It consists of a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter)
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