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Lytic Cycle
The lytic cycle (/ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA
DNA
exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA
DNA
in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA
DNA
machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Messenger RNA
Messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA) is a large family of RNA
RNA
molecules that convey genetic information from DNA
DNA
to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression. RNA polymerase transcribes primary transcript m RNA
RNA
(known as pre-mRNA) into processed, mature mRNA. This mature m RNA
RNA
is then translated into a polymer of amino acids: a protein, as summarized in the central dogma of molecular biology. As in DNA, m RNA
RNA
genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base pairs each. Each codon encodes for a specific amino acid, except the stop codons, which terminate protein synthesis
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Shine-Dalgarno
The Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence is a ribosomal binding site in bacterial and archaeal messenger RNA, generally located around 8 bases upstream of the start codon AUG.[1] The RNA sequence helps recruit the ribosome to the messenger RNA (mRNA) to initiate protein synthesis by aligning the ribosome with the start codon. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence exists both in bacteria and archaea. It is also present in some chloroplast and mitochondrial transcripts. The six-base consensus sequence is AGGAGG; in Escherichia coli, for example, the sequence is AGGAGGU, while subsequence GAGG dominates in E
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Promoter (biology)
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA
DNA
that initiates transcription of a particular gene. Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA
DNA
(towards the 5'
5'
region of the sense strand)
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Anti-sigma Factor
In the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes, anti-sigma factors bind to sigma factors and inhibit transcriptional activity. Anti-sigma factors
Anti-sigma factors
have been found in a number of bacteria, including Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
and Salmonella, and in the T4 bacteriophage. Anti-sigma factors
Anti-sigma factors
are antagonists to the sigma factors, which regulate numerous cell processes including flagellar production, stress response, transport and cellular growth. For example, anti-sigma factor 70 Rsd in E. coli is present in the stationary phase and blocks the activity of sigma factor 70 which in essence initiate gene transcription
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Sigma Factor
A sigma factor (σ factor) is a protein needed only for initiation of transcription.[1] It is a bacterial transcription initiation factor that enables specific binding of RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
to gene promoters. It is homologous to archaeal transcription factor B and to eukaryotic TFIIB.[2] The specific sigma factor used to initiate transcription of a given gene will vary, depending on the gene and on the environmental signals needed to initiate transcription of that gene. Selection of promoters by RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
is dependent on the sigma factor that associates with it.[3] Every molecule of RNA polymerase
RNA polymerase
holoenzyme contains exactly one sigma factor subunit, which in the model bacterium Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
is one of those listed below. The number of sigma factors varies between bacterial species.[1][4] E. coli has seven sigma factors
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RNA Polymerase
RNA
RNA
polymerase (ribonucleic acid polymerase), both abbreviated RNAP or RNApol, official name DNA-directed RNA
RNA
polymerase, is a member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms (-species) and many viruses. RNAP locally opens the double-stranded DNA
DNA
(usually about four turns of the double helix) so that one strand of the exposed nucleotides can be used as a template for the synthesis of RNA, a process called transcription. A transcription factor and its associated transcription mediator complex must be attached to a DNA
DNA
binding site called a promoter region before RNAP can initiate the DNA
DNA
unwinding at that position. RNAP has intrinsic helicase activity, therefore no separate enzyme is needed to unwind the DNA
DNA
(in contrast to DNA
DNA
polymerase)
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Enterobacteria Phage T4
Enterobacteria phage T4
Enterobacteria phage T4
is a bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli bacteria. The T4 phage is a member of the T-even phages, a group including enterobacteriophages T2 and T6. T4 is capable of undergoing only a lytic lifecycle and not the lysogenic lifecycle.Contents1 Genome
Genome
and structure1.1 Translation2 Virus
Virus
particle structure 3 Infection
Infection
process3.1 Reproduction4 Replication and packaging 5 Multiplicity reactivation 6 History 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links Genome
Genome
and structure[edit] The T4 phage's double-stranded DNA
DNA
genome is about 169 kbp long[1] and encodes 289 proteins. The T4 genome is terminally redundant and is first replicated as a unit, then several genomic units are recombined end-to-end to form a concatemer
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Reverse Transcriptase
A reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA
DNA
(cDNA) from an RNA
RNA
template, a process termed reverse transcription. It is mainly associated with retroviruses. However, non-retroviruses also use RT (for example, the hepatitis B virus, a member of the Hepadnaviridae, which are dsDNA-RT viruses, while retroviruses are ss RNA
RNA
viruses). RT inhibitors are widely used as antiretroviral drugs
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Retrovirus
Subfamily: OrthoretrovirinaeAlpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Gammaretrovirus LentivirusSubfamily: SpumaretrovirinaeSpumavirusA retrovirus is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus
RNA virus
with a DNA intermediate and, as an obligate parasite, targets a host cell. Once inside the host cell cytoplasm, the virus uses its own reverse transcriptase enzyme to produce DNA
DNA
from its RNA
RNA
genome, the reverse of the usual pattern, thus retro (backwards). The new DNA
DNA
is then incorporated into the host cell genome by an integrase enzyme, at which point the retroviral DNA
DNA
is referred to as a provirus
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Transcription (genetics)
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase. Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: RNA
RNA
polymerase, together with one or more general transcription factors, binds to promoter DNA. RNA
RNA
polymerase creates a transcription bubble, which separates the two strands of the DNA
DNA
helix
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