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Lysogenic Cycle
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally
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Vibrio Cholerae
Vibrio
Vibrio
cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium. The bacterium's natural habitat is brackish or saltwater. Some strains of V. cholerae cause the disease cholera. V. cholerae is a facultative anaerobe[1] and has a flagellum at one cell pole as well as pili. V. cholerae can undergo respiratory and fermentative metabolism. When ingested, V. cholerae can cause diarrhea and vomiting in a host within several hours to 2–3 days of ingestion. V
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Genes
A gene is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Diphtheria
Diphtheria
Diphtheria
is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.[1] Signs and symptoms may vary from mild to severe.[2] They usually start two to five days after exposure.[1] Symptoms often come on fairly gradually, beginning with a sore throat and fever.[2] In severe cases, a grey or white patch develops in the throat.[1][2] This can block the airway and create a barking cough as in croup.[2] The neck may swell in part due to enlarged lymph nodes.[1] A form of diphtheria that involves the skin, eyes, or genitals also exists.[1][2] Complications may include myocarditis, inflammation
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Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation
Oxidation
is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals, leading to chain reactions that may damage cells. Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. The term "antioxidant" is mainly used for two different groups of substances: industrial chemicals which are added to products to prevent oxidation, and natural chemicals found in foods and body tissue which are said to have beneficial health effects. To balance the oxidative state, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase) produced internally or the dietary antioxidants: vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E. Antioxidant
Antioxidant
dietary supplements do not improve health nor are they effective in preventing diseases
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Cholera Toxin
Cholera
Cholera
toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.[1][2] CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection.[3]Contents1 History 2 Structure 3 Pathogenesis 4 Origin 5 Applications 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Cholera
Cholera
toxin was discovered in 1959 by Indian microbiologist Sambhu Nath De[4] Structure[edit] Cholera
Cholera
toxin B pentamer, Vibrio cholerae.The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding), denoted as AB5. Subunit B binds while subunit A activates the G protein
G protein
which activates adenylate cyclase
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Shigella Dysenteriae
Shigella dysenteriae is a species of the rod-shaped bacterial genus Shigella.[1][page needed] Shigella species can cause shigellosis (bacillary dysentery). Shigellae are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria.[2] S. dysenteriae, spread by contaminated water and food, causes the most severe dysentery because of its potent and deadly Shiga toxin, but other species may also be dysentery agents.[3] Contamination is often caused by bacteria on unwashed hands during food preparation, or soiled hands reaching the mouth.[citation needed]Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Diagnosis 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] The most commonly observed signs associated with Shigella dysentery include colitis, malnutrition, rectal prolapse, tenesmus, reactive arthritis, and central nervous system problems
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Dysentery
Dysentery
Dysentery
is a type of gastroenteritis that results in diarrhea with blood.[1][2] Other symptoms may include fever, abdominal pain,[3] and a feeling of incomplete defecation. It is caused by several types of infections such as bacteria, viruses, parasitic worms, or protozoa. The mechanism is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, especially of the colon.Contents1 Signs and symptoms 2 Mechanism2.1 Amoebic dysentery 2.2 Bacillary dysentery 2.3 Other bacterial diarrhea3 Diagnosis3.1 Physical exam 3.2 Stool and blood tests4 Treatment 5 Prognosis 6 Epidemiology 7 Society and culture7.1 Notable cases8 Research 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] The most common form of dysentery is bacillary dysentery, which is typically a mild illness, causing symptoms normally consisting of mild stomach pains and frequent passage of stool or diarrhea
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Toxins
A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms;[1][2] synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).[3] Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors
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Prophages
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Contents1 Prophage induction 2 Zygotic induction 3 References 4 See alsoProphage induction[edit] Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Streptococcus Pyogenes
Streptococcus
Streptococcus
pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteria are aerotolerant and an extracellular bacterium, made up of non-motile and non-sporing cocci. As expected with a streptococci, it is clinically important in human illness. It is an infrequent, but usually pathogenic, part of the skin microbiota. It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen, and is often called group A streptococcus (GAS). However, both Streptococcus
Streptococcus
dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus
Streptococcus
anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci
Group A streptococci
when grown on blood agar typically produces small zones of beta-hemolysis, a complete destruction of red blood cells
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Exotoxin
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.[1] An exotoxin can cause damage to the host by destroying cells or disrupting normal cellular metabolism. They are highly potent and can cause major damage to the host. Exotoxins may be secreted, or, similar to endotoxins, may be released during lysis of the cell
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Scarlet Fever
Scarlet fever
Scarlet fever
is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A streptococcus (group A strep) infection.[1] The signs and symptoms include a sore throat, fever, headaches, swollen lymph nodes, and a characteristic rash.[1] The rash is red and feels like sandpaper and the tongue may be red and bumpy.[1] It most commonly affects children between five and 15 years of age.[1] Scarlet fever
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Clostridium Botulinum
Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.[1][2] The botulinum toxin can cause a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and other animals[2] and is the most potent toxin known to humankind, natural or synthetic, with a lethal dose of 1.3–2.1 ng/kg in humans.[3] C. botulinum is a diverse group of pathogenic bacteria initially grouped together by their ability to produce botulinum toxin and now known as four distinct groups, C. botulinum groups I-IV. C. botulinum groups I-IV, as well as some strains of Clostridium
Clostridium
butyricum and Clostridium
Clostridium
baratii, are the bacteria responsible for producing botulinum toxin.[1] C. botulinum is responsible for foodborne botulism (ingestion of preformed toxin), infant botulism (intestinal infection with toxin-forming C
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Botulism
Botulism
Botulism
is a rare and potentially fatal illness caused by a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium
Clostridium
botulinum.[1] The disease begins with weakness, blurred vision, feeling tired, and trouble speaking.[1] This may then be followed by weakness of the arms,
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