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Lutsk
Lutsk (Ukrainian: Луцьк, romanizedLuts'k, IPA: [lutsʲk]; Polish: Łuck [wutsk]; Yiddish: לוצק‎, romanizedLutzk) is a city on the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Volyn Oblast (province) and the administrative center of the surrounding Lutsk Raion (district) within the oblast, though it is not a part of the raion. Lutsk has the status of a city of oblast significance, equivalent to that of a raion. Population: 217,315 (2020 est.)[1] Lutsk is an ancient Slavic town, mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle as Luchesk in the records of 1085. The etymology of the name is unclear. There are three hypotheses: the name may have been derived from the Old Slavic word luka (an arc or bend in a river), or the name may have originated from Luka (the chieftain of the Dulebs), an ancient Slavic tribe living in this area
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Sophia Of Halshany
Sophia of Halshany or Sonka Olshanskaya (Belarusian: Соф'я Гальшанская, romanizedSofja Halšanskaja; Lithuanian: Sofija Alšėniškė; Polish: Zofia Holszańska; c. 1405 – September 21, 1461 in Kraków) was a Grand Duchy of Lithuania princess of Halshany. As the fourth and last wife of Jogaila, King of Poland and Supreme Duke of Lithuania, she was Queen consort of Poland (1422–1434). As the mother of Władysław III, King of Poland and Hungary, and Casimir IV, Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, she was the mother of the Jagiellon dynasty. In March 1422, Sophia moved to the Wawel Castle in Kraków
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Raion
A raion (also rayon) is a type of administrative unit of several post-Soviet states (such as part of an oblast). The term is from the French "rayon" (meaning "honeycomb, department"),[1] which is both a type of a subnational entity and a division of a city, and is commonly translated in English as "district".[2] A raion is a standardized administrative entity across most of the former Soviet Union and is usually a subdivision two steps below the national level. However, in smaller USSR republics, it could be the primary level of administrative division. After the fall of the Soviet Union, some of the republics kept the raion (e.g. Azerbaijan) while others dropped it (e.g
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Hypatian Chronicle
The Hypatian Codex (also known as Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Cyrillic Ипатьевская летопись) is a compendium of three chronicles: the Primary Chronicle, Kyiv Chronicle, and Galician-Volhynian Chronicle.[1] It is the most important source of historical data for southern Rus'.[2] The codex was rediscovered in Ukraine in 1617 and then copied by monks in Kyiv in 1621.[citation needed] It was re-discovered yet again in the 18th century at the Hypatian Monastery of Kostroma by the Russian historian Nikolay Karamzin
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language native to the Russians in Eastern Europe. It is an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.[22][23] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages alongside, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch. There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian. Russian was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 26 December 1991.[24] Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states
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Polish Language
Polish (język polski, [ˈjɛ̃zɨk ˈpɔlskʲi] (listen), polszczyzna, [pɔlˈʂt͡ʂɨzna] (listen) or simply polski, [ˈpɔlskʲi] (listen)) is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group.[9] It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million[2][1] Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union. Polish is written with the standardized Polish alphabet, which has nine additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż)
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Rurik Dynasty
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Russian: Рю́риковичи, romanizedRjúrikoviči, IPA: [ˈrjʉrʲɪkəvʲɪt͡ɕɪ]; Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, romanizedRjúrykovyči; Belarusian: Ру́рыкавічы, romanizedRúrykavičy, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian[3] prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.[4] The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus' (after 882), as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia (after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Rus (Tsardom of Russia). They ruled until 1610 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs
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Tatars
The Tatars (/ˈtɑːtərz/; Tatar: татарлар, tatarlar, تاتارلار, Crimean Tatar: tatarlar; Old Turkic: 𐱃𐱃𐰺‎, romanized: Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar", [11] which include groups with Mishar Tatars, Kryashens, Astrakhan Tatars, Siberian Tatars, Kazan Tatars. Initially, the ethnonym Tatar possibly referred to the Tatar confederation. That confederation was eventually incorporated into the Mongol Empire when Genghis Khan unified the various steppe tribes.[12] Historically, the term Tatars (or Tartars) was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Mongol nomadic empires and kingdoms
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Mongol Invasion Of Rus'
The Mongol conquest of Kievan Rus' was part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, in which the Mongol Empire invaded and conquered Kievan Rus' and other Russian principalities in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.[4][5] The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in May 1223, which resulted in a Mongol victory over the forces of several Rus' principalities. The Mongols retreated, having gathered their intelligence which was the purpose of the reconnaissance-in-force. A full-scale invasion of Rus' by Batu Khan followed, from 1237 to 1242. The invasion was ended by the Mongol succession process upon the death of Ögedei Khan
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