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Lushootseed
LUSHOOTSEED (also: XʷəLšUCID, DXʷLəšúCID, PUGET SALISH, PUGET SOUND SALISH or SKAGIT-NISQUALLY) is the language or dialect continuum of several Salish Native American tribes of modern-day Washington state. Lushootseed
Lushootseed
is one of the Coast Salish languages . The latter is one of two main divisions of the Salishan language family. CONTENTS* 1 Phonology * 1.1 Consonants * 1.2 Vowels * 2 Related languages and current status * 3 Language revitalization * 4 Subdivisions * 5 Alphabet * 6 Some vocabulary * 7 References * 7.1 Language learning materials * 8 External links PHONOLOGY Lushootseed
Lushootseed
has a complex consonantal phonology and 4 vowel phonemes. Along with more common voicing and labialization contrasts, Lushootseed
Lushootseed
has a plain-glotallic contrast, which is realized as laryngealized with sonorants , ejective with voiceless stops or fricatives
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY Toronto OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * English * French ETHNIC GROUPS Ethnic demography * 76.7% White * 14.2% Asian * 4.3% Indigenous * 2.9% Black * 1.2% Latin American * 0.5% Multiracial * 0.3% Other RELIGION List of religion
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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British Columbia
BRITISH COLUMBIA is the westernmost province of Canada , with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is also a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion , along with the U.S. states of Alaska , Idaho , western Montana , Oregon , and Washington state . The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria , established in 1843, which gave rise to the city of Victoria , at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island . Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia (1858–66) was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment , in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush . Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia : he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", and "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster , established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park , and designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia
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Washington (state)
WASHINGTON (/ˈwɑːʃɪŋtən/ ( listen )) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States
United States
located north of Oregon , west of Idaho
Idaho
, and south of the Canadian province of British Columbia on the coast of the Pacific Ocean . Named after George Washington , the first President of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory , which had been ceded by Britain in 1846 in accordance with the Oregon
Oregon
Treaty in the settlement of the Oregon
Oregon
boundary dispute . It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Olympia is the state capital . Washington is sometimes referred to as WASHINGTON STATE or the STATE OF WASHINGTON to distinguish it from Washington, D.C. , the capital of the U.S., which is often shortened to Washington. Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 sq km), and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people. Approximately 60 percent of Washington's residents live in the Seattle
Seattle
metropolitan area , the center of transportation, business, and industry along the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea , an inlet of the Pacific Ocean consisting of numerous islands, deep fjords , and bays carved out by glaciers
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Duwamish Tribe
The DUWAMISH ( Lushootseed : Dxʷdəwʔabš, ) are a Lushootseed -speaking Native American tribe in western Washington , and the indigenous people of metropolitan Seattle
Seattle
, where they have been living since the end of the last glacial period (c. 8000 BCE, 10,000 years ago). The Duwamish tribe
Duwamish tribe
descends from at least two distinct groups from before intense contact with people of European ancestry—the People of the Inside (the environs of Elliott Bay
Elliott Bay
) and the People of the Large Lake ( Lake Washington )—and continues to evolve both culturally and ethnically. By historic language, the Duwamish are (Skagit-Nisqually) Lushootseed; Lushootseed is a Salishan language . Adjacent tribes throughout the Puget Sound -Strait of Georgia basin were, and are, interconnected and interrelated, yet distinct. Today, some Duwamish people are enrolled in the federally recognized Tulalip Tribes of Washington . The present-day Duwamish tribe
Duwamish tribe
developed in parallel with the times of the Treaty of Point Elliott and its aftermath in the 1850s. Although not recognized by the U.S. federal government, the Duwamish remain an organized tribe with roughly 500 enrolled members as of 2004
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Snohomish Tribe
The SNOHOMISH are a Lushootseed Native American tribe who reside around the Puget Sound area of Washington , north of Seattle
Seattle
. They speak the Lushootseed language . The tribal spelling of their name is _Sdoh-doh-hohbsh,_ which means "lowland people" according to the last chief of the Snohomish tribe, Chief William Shelton . Some commentators believe a more accurate spelling in the Latin alphabet would be Sdohobich. Historians have debated the meaning of the name. Some believe it means "a style of union among those of the brave", while others interpret it as "Sleeping Waters." Other possible meanings include "a large number of people" and even "a warrior tribe." Sometimes known as The Lowland People, the Snohomish have also been referred to as the Sinahomish (or Sneomuses). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Legal status * 2.1 Point Elliott Treaty of 1855 * 3 Notable Snohomish * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYFishermen, hunters, and gatherers, the Snohomish formerly lived near the mouth of the Snohomish River, a Puget Sound tributary north of today's Marysville, on the southern tip of Camano Island, on Whidbey Island opposite today's city of Mukilteo, and along the Snohomish River as far east as today's town of Monroe
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Suquamish
The SUQUAMISH are a Lushootseed -speaking Native American people, located in present-day Washington in the United States. They are a southern Coast Salish people . Today, most Suquamish
Suquamish
people are enrolled in the federally recognized SUQUAMISH TRIBE, a signatory to the 1855 Treaty of Point Elliott . Chief Seattle
Chief Seattle
, the famous leader of the Suquamish
Suquamish
and Duwamish Tribes for which the City of Seattle
Seattle
is named, signed the Point Elliot Treaty on behalf of both Tribes. The Suquamish
Suquamish
Tribe owns the Port Madison Indian Reservation . CONTENTS * 1 Language * 2 Culture * 3 Early history * 4 19th century * 5 Later leaders * 6 Recent history * 7 References * 8 External links LANGUAGE Suquamish
Suquamish
people traditionally speak a dialect of Lushootseed , which belongs to the Salishan language family. CULTURELike many Northwest Coast indigenous peoples, the Suquamish
Suquamish
enjoyed the rich bounty of land and sea west of the Cascade Mountains . They fished for salmon and harvested shellfish in local waters and Puget Sound . The cedar tree provided fiber used to weave waterproof clothing and beautiful utilitarian items, and provided wood for longhouses, seagoing canoes and ceremonial items
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Sammamish People
The SAMMAMISH (/səˈmæmɪʃ/ ; indigenously, ) people were a Coast Salish Native American tribe in the Sammamish River Valley in central King County, Washington . Their name is variously translated as ssts'p-abc ("meander dwellers", a group residing around Bothwell), s-tah-PAHBSH ("willow people") or as Samena ("hunter people"), which was corrupted into Sammamish. According to Hitchman, it does not mean “hunter people”, the name is derived from samma, meaning “the sound of the blue crane” and mish, meaning “river.” The name may have originated with the Snoqualmie—some tribal members once lived along the lake near the bottom of Inglewood Hill—but this has not been verified. They were also known to early European-American settlers as "Squak", "Simump", and "Squowh.", Squak is a corruption of sqwa'ux, meaning Issaqha Creek , which was a village site on Sammamish Lake . They were closely related to the Duwamish , and have often been considered a Duwamish sub-group as part of the Xacuabš ("People of the Large Lake") who lived near Lake Washington . Like the Duwamish, the Sammamish originally spoke a southern dialect of Lushootseed . The largest Sammamish village was tlah-WAH-dees at the mouth of the Sammamish River, which at the time was between present-day Kenmore and Bothell , east of its present location at the southwest corner of Kenmore
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Snoqualmie People
The SNOQUALMIE PEOPLE (S·dukʷalbixʷ) are a southern Coast Salish indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest Coast . Their homelands span the Snoqualmie Valley in east King and Snohomish Counties in Washington state. Today, they are enrolled in the federally recognized tribes : Snoqualmie Indian Tribe and Tulalip Tribes of Washington . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Language * 3 History * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links NAMEThe Snoqualmie are also known as the Snoqualmu, Snoqualmoo, Snoqualmick, Snoqualamuke, or Snuqualmi. Their autonym is SDUK-AL-BIXW, meaning "strong people of status." LANGUAGESnoqualmie is a dialect of the Southern Puget Sound Salish language , which is a Lushootseed language , belonging to the Central Salish language family. It is shifting towards English. HISTORYHistorically Snoqualmie people
Snoqualmie people
lived in 58 longhouses in 16 villages, with a population of 3,000–4,000. In the mid-19th century, their homelands had four districts: Monroe, Tolt, Fall City, and North Bend. They had an influential chief Patkanin . Some Snoqualmies settled onto the Tulalip
Tulalip
Reservation after signing the Point Elliott Treaty with the Washington Territory in 1855, but many remained in their ancestral homelands around the Snoqualmie Valley and Lake Sammamish
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Puyallup Tribe
The PUYALLUP, SPUYALəPABš or S’PUYALUPUBSH (pronounced: Spoy-all-up-obsh) (“generous and welcoming behavior to all people (friends and strangers) who enter our lands.”) are a federally recognized Coast Salish Native American tribe from western Washington state, United States. They were forcibly relocated onto reservation lands in what is today Tacoma , Washington, in late 1854, after signing the Treaty of Medicine Creek with the United States. Today they have an enrolled population of 4,000, of whom 2,500 live on the reservation. The PUYALLUP INDIAN RESERVATION is one of the most urban Indian reservations in the United States. It is located primarily in northern Pierce County , with a very small part extending north into the city of Federal Way , in King County . Parts of seven communities in the Tacoma metropolitan area extend onto reservation land; in addition the tribe controls off-reservation trust land. In decreasing order of included population, the communities are Tacoma, Waller , Fife , Milton , Edgewood , Puyallup , and Federal Way. The reservation has a land area of 73.935 km² (28.547 sq mi), and a 2000 census resident population of 41,341 persons. These are predominantly non-Native Americans. The tribe has 4,000 enrolled members, of whom 2,500 live on the reservation
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Sahewamish Tribe
The SAHEWAMISH are a Northwest Native American tribe of the Lushootseed people. They were fisherman and hunter-gatherers, sedentary, and lived in the southwestern inlets of Puget Sound from Shelton, Washington , to the Nisqually River . There were about six villages. While some descendants of the tribe live on the Nisqually Reservation near Olympia, others live on the Squaxin Island Tribe reservation near Shelton. HISTORY * 1787 Strait of Juan de Fuca * 1788 Area visited by John Meares * 1790 Both shores of strait explored by Manuel Quimper * 1792 Area charted by Captain George Vancouver * 1827 Hudson\'s Bay Company founded Fort Langley * 1841 Influx of Oregon Trail settlers begin and conflicts develop * 1854 Treaty of Medicine Creek LANGUAGEIn 1990, there were about 60 older adult speakers of the Sahewamish dialect, of the Salishan Lushootseed language . NOTES * ^ "Sahewamish". Four Directions Institute. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved 2007-10-05. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Sahewamish additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Stillaguamish Tribe Of Indians Of Washington
The STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF INDIANS OF WASHINGTON , formerly known as the STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE OF WASHINGTON, is a federally recognized tribe of Stillaguamish people . They are a tribe of Southern Coast Salish indigenous people of the Pacific Northwest located in Washington . Other Stillaguamish people are enrolled in the Tulalip Tribes . CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Reservation * 3 Government * 4 Language * 5 Economic development * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links NAMEThe name has been used since 1850 to refer to indigenous peoples living along the Stillaguamish River . In 1855, they used the name STOLUCK-WA-MISH RIVER TRIBE, which is how they sign the Point Elliott Treaty . RESERVATIONThe STILLAGUAMISH TRIBE\'S TRUST LANDS are located in Snohomish County, Washington . The tribe was granted a 64-acre (26 ha) reservation by the federal government in 2014, including the Angel of the Winds Casino . GOVERNMENTThe Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians is headquartered in Arlington, Washington . They ratified their constitution on 31 January 1953. The tribe is governed by a six-member, democratically elected Board of Directors. The current tribal administration(2016) is as follows: * Chairman: Shawn Yanity * Vice Chairman: Eric White * Treasurer: Patricia Pecor * Secretary: Virginia Meraz * Member: Stacy White * Member: Nicholas Smith
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Skagit Tribes
The SKAGIT (/ˈskædʒᵻt/ SKAJ-it ) are either of two tribes of the Lushootseed Native American people living in the state of Washington , the Upper Skagit and the Lower Skagit . They speak Skagit (also called Swinomish ), a subdialect of the Northern dialect of Lushootseed , which is part of the Salishan family. As of 1977 , there were an estimated 100 speakers of Skagit. The Skagit River , Skagit Bay
Skagit Bay
, and Skagit County all derive their names from the Skagit people
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Nisqually People
The NISQUALLY (ˌnɪsˈkwɔːliː) is a Lushootseed -speaking Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States
United States
. They are a Southern Coast Salish people. They are federally recognized as the Nisqually Indian Tribe , formerly known as the Nisqually Indian Tribe of the Nisqually Reservation and the Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation . The tribe lives on a reservation in the Nisqually River valley near the river delta. The Nisqually Indian Reservation , at 47°01′12″N 122°39′27″W / 47.02000°N 122.65750°W / 47.02000; -122.65750 , comprises 20.602 km² (7.955 sq mi) of land area on both sides of the river, in western Pierce County and eastern Thurston County . In the 2000 census , it had a resident population of 588 persons, all in the Thurston County portion, on the southwest side of the Nisqually River. The tribe moved onto their reservation east of Olympia, Washington , in late 1854 with the signing of the Medicine Creek Treaty . As reaction to the unfairness of the treaty, many members of the tribe led by Chief Leschi engaged and were eventually defeated by the US Army in the conflict known as the Puget Sound War in 1855-56
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Language Family
A LANGUAGE FAMILY is a group of languages related through descent from a common _ancestral language_ or _parental language_, called the proto-language of that family. The term "family" reflects the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics , which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree , or in a subsequent modification, to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy . Linguists therefore describ