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Lushootseed
LUSHOOTSEED (also: XʷəLšUCID, DXʷLəšúCID, PUGET SALISH, PUGET SOUND SALISH or SKAGIT-NISQUALLY) is the language or dialect continuum of several Salish Native American tribes of modern-day Washington state. Lushootseed
Lushootseed
is one of the Coast Salish languages . The latter is one of two main divisions of the Salishan
Salishan
language family
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Alveolar Consonant
ALVEOLAR CONSONANTS are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge , which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants ), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants ), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental , because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation; this is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristic timbre. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants
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Alveolo-palatal Consonant
In phonetics , ALVEOLO-PALATAL (or ALVEOPALATAL) consonants , sometimes synonymous with PRE-PALATAL consonants, are intermediate in articulation between the coronal and dorsal consonants, or which have simultaneous alveolar and palatal articulation. In the official IPA chart, alveolo-palatals would appear between the retroflex and palatal consonants but for "lack of space". Ladefoged and Maddieson characterize the alveolo-palatals as palatalized postalveolars (palatalized palato-alveolars ), articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the body of the tongue raised toward the palate, whereas Esling describes them as advanced palatals (pre-palatals), the furthest front of the dorsal consonants , articulated with the body of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge . These descriptions are essentially equivalent, since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue (see schematic at right)
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Velar Consonant
VELARS are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum ) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the VELUM ). Since the velar region of the roof of the mouth is relatively extensive and the movements of the dorsum are not very precise, velars easily undergo assimilation , shifting their articulation back or to the front depending on the quality of adjacent vowels. They often become automatically _fronted_, that is partly or completely palatal before a following front vowel, and _retracted_, that is partly or completely uvular before back vowels. Palatalised velars (like English /k/ in _keen_ or _cube_) are sometimes referred to as PALATOVELARS. Many languages also have labialized velars, such as , in which the articulation is accompanied by rounding of the lips
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Labial–velar Consonant
LABIAL–VELAR CONSONANTS are doubly articulated at the velum and the lips , such as . They are sometimes called "labiovelar consonants", a term that can also refer to labialized velars, such as the stop consonant and the approximant . CONTENTS * 1 Doubly articulated labial-velars * 2 Similar phonemes * 2.1 Doubly articulated labial-velars with labialization * 2.2 Other variants * 3 Notation * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References DOUBLY ARTICULATED LABIAL-VELARSTruly doubly articulated labial-velars include the stops and the nasal . To pronounce them, one must attempt to say the velar consonants but then close their lips for the bilabial component, and then release the lips
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Labial Consonant
LABIAL CONSONANTS are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator . The two common labial articulations are bilabials , articulated using both lips, and labiodentals , articulated with the lower lip against the upper teeth, both of which are present in English . A third labial articulation is dentolabials , articulated with the upper lip against the lower teeth (the reverse of labiodental), normally only found in pathological speech. Generally precluded are linguolabials , in which the tip of the tongue contacts the posterior side of the upper lip, making them coronals , though sometimes, they behave as labial consonants. The most common distribution between bilabials and labiodentals is the English one, in which the stops , , , and , are bilabial and the fricatives , , and , are labiodental. Bilabial fricatives and the bilabial approximant do not exist in English , but they occur in many languages
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Sonorants
In phonetics and phonology , a SONORANT or RESONANT is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract ; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages. Vowels are sonorants, as are consonants like /m/ and /l/: approximants , nasals , flaps or taps , and most trills . In older usage, only the term resonant was used with this meaning, and sonorant was a narrower term, referring to all resonants except vowels and semivowels . CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Voiceless * 2 Examples * 3 Sound changes * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Bibliography TYPESWhereas obstruents are frequently voiceless , sonorants are almost always voiced. A typical sonorant consonant inventory found in many languages comprises the following: two nasals /m/, /n/, two semivowels /w/, /j/, and two liquids /l/, /r/. In the sonority hierarchy , all sounds higher than fricatives are sonorants
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY
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Voice (phonetics)
VOICE is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants ). It is also called "'voicing."' Speech sounds can be described as either voiceless (also called unvoiced) or voiced. The term, however, is used to refer to two separate concepts: * Voicing can refer to the articulatory process in which the vocal folds vibrate, its primary use in phonetics to describe phones, which are particular speech sounds. * It can also refer to a classification of speech sounds that tend to be associated with vocal cord vibration but may not actually be voiced at the articulatory level. That is the term's primary use in phonology : to describe phonemes ; while in phonetics its primary use is to describe phones.At the articulatory level, a VOICED sound is one in which the vocal folds vibrate, and a voiceless sound is one in which they do not
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Labialization
LABIALIZATION is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips while the remainder of the oral cavity produces another sound. The term is normally restricted to consonants . When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded . The most common labialized consonants are labialized velars . Most other labialized sounds also have simultaneous velarization , and the process may then be more precisely called LABIO-VELARIZATION. Labialization may also refer to a type of assimilation process
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Laryngealized
In linguistics , CREAKY VOICE (sometimes called LARYNGEALISATION, PULSE PHONATION, VOCAL FRY, or GLOTTAL FRY) is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact. They normally vibrate irregularly at 20–50 pulses per second, about two octaves below the frequency of normal voicing, and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. Although creaky voice may occur with very low pitch, as at the end of a long intonation unit , it can also occur with a higher pitch. Creaky voice is prevalent as a peer-group affectation among young women in the United States
United States
. According to a 2012 study in PLOS ONE, young women using creaky voice are viewed as less competent, less educated, less trustworthy, less attractive and less employable
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Uvular Consonant
UVULARS are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula , that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants . Uvulars may be stops , fricatives , nasals , trills , or approximants , though the IPA does not provide a separate symbol for the approximant, and the symbol for the voiced fricative is used instead. Uvular affricates can certainly be made but are rare: they occur in some southern High-German dialects, as well as in a few African and Native American languages. (Ejective uvular affricates occur as realizations of uvular stops in Lillooet , Kazakh and Georgian .) Uvular consonants are typically incompatible with advanced tongue root , and they often cause retraction of neighboring vowels
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Glottal Consonant
GLOTTAL CONSONANTS are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation. Many phoneticians consider them, or at least the glottal fricative, to be transitional states of the glottis without a point of articulation as other consonants have, while some do not consider them to be consonants at all. However, glottal consonants behave as typical consonants in many languages. For example, in Literary Arabic , most words are formed from a root C-C-C consisting of three consonants, which are inserted into templates such as /CaːCiC/ or /maCCuːC/. The glottal consonants /h/ and /ʔ/ can occupy any of the three root consonant slots, just like "normal" consonants such as /k/ or /n/
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Back Vowel
A BACK VOWEL is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages . The defining characteristic of a back vowel is that the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant . Back vowels are sometimes also called DARK VOWELS because they are perceived as sounding darker than the front vowels . Near-back vowels are essentially a type of back vowels; no language is known to contrast back and near-back vowels based on backness alone. CONTENTS * 1 Articulation * 2 Partial list * 3 See also * 4 References ARTICULATIONIn their articulation, back vowels do not form a single category, but may be either raised vowels such as or retracted vowels such as . Unrounded back vowels are typically centralized , that is, near-back in thei