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Lupus Erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus
Lupus erythematosus
is a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks healthy tissues.[1] Symptoms
Symptoms
of these diseases can affect many different body systems, including joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, heart, and lungs. The most common and severe form is systemic lupus erythematosus.Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Photosensitivity2 Genetics2.1 Causes 2.2 Age difference 2.3 Differences in ethnicity3 Diagnosis3.1 Classification4 Treatment 5 Epidemiology5.1 Worldwide 5.2 United Kingdom 5.3 United States6 See also 7 References 8 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Symptoms
Symptoms
vary from person to person, and may come and go. Almost everyone with lupus has joint pain and swelling. Some develop arthritis. Frequently affected joints are the fingers, hands, wrists, and knees
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Specialty (medicine)
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.[1]Contents1 History of medical specialization 2 Classification of medical specialization 3 Specialties that are common worldwide 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area 5 List of North American medical specialties and others 6 Physician
Physician
compensation 7 Specialties by country7.1 Australia and New Zealand 7.2 Canada 7.3 Germany 7.4 India 7.5 United States 7.6 Specialty and Physician
Physician
Location8 Other uses 9 Training 10 Satisfaction 11 See also 12 ReferencesHistory of medical specialization[edit] To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized
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Methotrexate
Methotrexate
Methotrexate
(MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.[1] It is used to treat cancer, autoimmune diseases, ectopic pregnancy, and for medical abortions.[1] Types of cancers it is used for include breast cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, lymphoma, and osteosarcoma.[1] Types of autoimmune diseases it is used for include psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease.[1] It can be given by mouth or by injection.[1] Common side effects include nausea, feeling tired, fever, increased risk of infection, low white blood cell
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Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha
1A8M, 1TNF, 2AZ5, 2E7A, 2TUN, 2ZJC, 2ZPX, 3ALQ, 3IT8, 3L9J, 3WD5, 4G3Y, 4TSV, 4TWT, 5TSWIdentifiersAliases TNF, DIF, TNF-alpha, TNFA, TNFSF2, Tumour necrosis factor, Tumour necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor, TNLG1FExternal IDs MGI: 104798 HomoloGene: 496 GeneCards: TNF Gene
Gene
location (Human)Chr. Chromosome
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Gene Polymorphism
A gene is said to be polymorphic if more than one allele occupies that gene’s locus within a population.[1] In addition to having more than one allele at a specific locus, each allele must also occur in the population at a rate of at least 1% to generally be considered polymorphic.[2] Gene
Gene
polymorphisms can occur in any region of the genome. The majority of polymorphisms are silent, meaning that do not alter the function or expression of a gene.[3] Some polymorphism is visible. For example, in dogs the E locus, can have any of five different alleles, known as E, Em, Eg, Eh, and e.[4] Varying combinations of these alleles contribute to the pigmentation and patterns seen in dog coats.[5] A polymorphic variant of a gene can lead to the abnormal expression or to the production of an abnormal form of the protein; this abnormality may cause or be associated with disease
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Rheumatology
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a sub-specialty in internal medicine, devoted to diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases. Physicians who have undergone formal training in rheumatology are called rheumatologists. Rheumatologists deal mainly with immune-mediated disorders of the musculoskeletal system, soft tissues, autoimmune diseases, vasculitides, and heritable connective tissue disorders. Many of these diseases are now known to be disorders of the immune system
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Hypertrophic
Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy
(/haɪˈpɜːrtrəfi/, from Greek ὑπέρ "excess" + τροφή "nourishment") is the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.[1] It is distinguished from hyperplasia, in which the cells remain approximately the same size but increase in number.[2] Although hypertrophy and hyperplasia are two distinct processes, they frequently occur together, such as in the case of the hormonally-induced proliferation and enlargement of the cells of the uterus during pregnancy. Eccentric hypertrophy is a type of hypertrophy where the walls and chamber of a hollow organ undergo growth in which the overall size and volume are enlarged
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Cutaneous Lupus Mucinosis
Cutaneous lupus mucinosis (also known as "Papular and nodular mucinosis in lupus erythematosus,"[1] "Papular and nodular mucinosis of Gold,"[1] and "Papulonodular mucinosis in lupus erythematosus"[1]) is a cutaneous condition characterized by lesions that present as asymptomatic skin-colored, at times reddish, 0.5–2 cm papules and nodules.[1] See also[edit]Papular mucinosis List of cutaneous conditionsReferences[edit]^ a b c d Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. This dermatology article is a stub
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Complement Deficiency Syndromes
Complement deficiency is an immunodeficiency of absent or suboptimal functioning of one of the complement system proteins.[3] Because there are redundancies in the immune system, many complement disorders are never diagnosed, some studies estimated that less than 10% are identified.[4] Hypocomplementemia may be used more generally to refer to decreased complement levels[5] while secondary complement disorder means decreased complement levels that are not directly due to a genetic cause but secondary to another medical condition.[6]Contents1 Signs/symptoms1.1 Complications2 Causes2.1 Inherited 2.2 Acquired3 Mechanism 4 Diagnosis4.1 Types5 Treatment 6 Epidemiology 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksSigns/symptoms[edit] The following symptoms (signs) are consistent with complement deficiency in general:[7][8][9]Recurring infection Auto-immune disorders Glomerulonephritis Joint problems (manifesta
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Food And Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
(FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States
United States
Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States
United States
federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs (medications), vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices (ERED), cosmetics, animal foods & feed[4] and veterinary products
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Nitric Oxide Synthase
Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
synthases (EC 1.14.13.39) (NOSs) are a family of enzymes catalyzing the production of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine. NO is an important cellular signaling molecule. It helps modulate vascular tone, insulin secretion, airway tone, and peristalsis, and is involved in angiogenesis and neural development. It may function as a retrograde neurotransmitter. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
is mediated in mammals by the calcium-calmodulin controlled isoenzymes eNOS (endothelial NOS) and nNOS (neuronal NOS). The inducible isoform, iNOS, is involved in immune response, binds calmodulin at physiologically relevant concentrations, and produces NO as an immune defense mechanism, as NO is a free radical with an unpaired electron
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List Of Target Antigens In Pemphigoid
Circulating auto-antibodies in the human body can target normal parts of the skin leading to disease
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List Of Immunofluorescence Findings For Autoimmune Bullous Conditions
Several cutaneous conditions can be diagnosed with the aid of immunofluorescence studies. Cutaneous conditions with positive direct or indirect immunofluorescence when using salt-split skin include:Antibody isotype(s) and location of antibody deposition in immunofluorescence studies using salt-split skin for autoimmune bullous conditions targeting the basement membrane zone of the human integumentary systemCondition Antibody isotype(s) deposited Localization of antibody with use of salt-split skinAntiepilegrin cicatricial pemphigoid IgG DermalBullous lupus erythematosusDermalBullous pemphigoid IgG EpidermalCicatricial pemphigoid IgG EpidermalEpidermolysis bullosa acquisita IgG DermalLinear IgA
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List Of Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles Associated With Cutaneous Conditions
There are many human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles associated with conditions of or affecting the human integumentary system Human leukocyte antigen
Human leukocyte antigen
(HLA) alleles associated with conditions of or affecting the human integumentary systemCondition Associated HLA allele(s)Fixed drug eruption B22Lichen planus DR1 DR2 DRw9 DR10 Bw15 B8Psoriasis Cw6 DR406Psoriatic arthritis B27Ankylosing spondylitis B27Reactive arthritis B27Acute anterior uveitis B27Behçet's disease B51Dermatitis herpetiformis DQw2 DR3 B8Pemphigus vulgaris DR4 DRw6 Dw10<
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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