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Lunar Orbit
In astronomy , LUNAR ORBIT (also known as a SELENOCENTRIC ORBIT) refers to the orbit of an object around the Moon
Moon
. As used in the space program , this refers not to the orbit of the Moon
Moon
about the Earth
Earth
, but to orbits by various manned or unmanned spacecraft around the Moon. The altitude at apoapsis (point farthest from the surface) for a lunar orbit is known as APOLUNE, APOCYNTHION or APOSELENE, while the periapsis (point closest to the surface) is known as PERILUNE, PERICYNTHION or PERISELENE, from names or epithets of the moon goddess . LOW LUNAR ORBIT (LLO)—orbits below 100 kilometres (62 mi) altitude—are of particular interest in exploration of the moon, but suffer from gravitational perturbation effects that make most unstable, and leave only a few orbital inclinations possible for indefinite frozen orbits , useful for long-term stays in LLO
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Circumlunar Trajectory
A CIRCUMLUNAR TRAJECTORY, TRANS-LUNAR TRAJECTORY or LUNAR FREE RETURN is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon
Moon
, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set. BACKGROUNDThe first spacecraft to fly a circumlunar trajectory was Luna 3
Luna 3
. Circumlunar trajectories were also used by Apollo missions prior to lunar orbit insertion, to provide a free return to Earth in the event of a propulsion system malfunction on the way to the Moon. This was used on Apollo 13
Apollo 13
, when an oxygen tank rupture necessitated return to Earth without firing the Service Module engine, although a number of course corrections using the Lunar Module descent engine were required to maintain this trajectory
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Luna 3
LUNA 3, or E-2A NO.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme . It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon
Moon
. It was also the third space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon
Moon
,. Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic, never-before-seen views of the far side of the Moon
Moon
caused excitement and interest when they were published around the world, and a tentative Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon
Moon
was created after image processing improved the pictures. These views showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark, low-lying regions which were named Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Desire)
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Luna 1
LUNA 1, also known as MECHTA (Russian : Мечта, lit. : Dream), E-1 NO.4 and First Lunar Rover , was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon
Moon
, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit . Intended as an impactor, Luna 1
Luna 1
was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme
Luna programme
in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon; in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit . While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt
Van Allen radiation belt
, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space
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Free Return Trajectory
A FREE-RETURN TRAJECTORY is a trajectory of a spacecraft traveling away from a primary body (for example, the Earth
Earth
) where gravity due to a secondary body (for example, the Moon
Moon
) causes the spacecraft to return to the primary body without propulsion (hence the term free). CONTENTS * 1 Earth– Moon
Moon
* 2 Earth–Mars * 3 See also * 4 References EARTH–MOONThe first spacecraft to use a free-return trajectory was the Soviet Luna 3 mission in October 1959. It used the moon's gravity to send it back towards the earth so that the photographs it had taken of the far side of the moon could be downloaded by radio. Symmetrical free-return trajectories were studied by Arthur Schwaniger of NASA
NASA
in 1963 with reference to the Earth– Moon
Moon
system
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Far Side Of The Moon
The FAR SIDE OF THE MOON is the hemisphere of the Moon
Moon
that always faces away from Earth
Earth
. The far side's terrain is rugged, with a multitude of impact craters and relatively few flat lunar maria . It has one of the largest craters in the Solar System
Solar System
, the South Pole–Aitken basin . Although both sides of the moon experience two weeks of sunlight followed by two weeks of night, the far side is sometimes called the "dark side of the Moon," referring to the inability to communicate with terrestrial radios. About 18% of the far side is occasionally visible from Earth
Earth
due to libration . The remaining 82% remained unobserved until 1959, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
's Luna 3
Luna 3
space probe photographed it. The Soviet Academy of Sciences published the first atlas of the far side in 1960
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List Of Mountains On The Moon
This is a list of named MOUNTAINS ON THE MOON . Note that the heights listed below are not consistent across sources. In the 1960s, the US Army Mapping Service used elevation relative to 1,737,988 meters from the center of the Moon. In the 1970s, the US Defense Mapping Agency used 1,730,000 meters. The Clementine topographic data published in the 1990s uses 1,737,400 meters. Also note that this table is not comprehensive, and does not list the highest places on the Moon. Clementine data show a range of about 18,100 meters from lowest to highest point on the Moon. The highest point , located on the far side of the Moon, is approximately 6500 meters higher than Mons Huygens (usually listed as the tallest mountain). CONTENTS * 1 Mountains * 2 Mountain
Mountain
ranges * 3 Notes * 4 See also * 5 External links MOUNTAINSThese are isolated mountains or massifs . NAME LAT. /LONG. DIA. HT
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos * " E pluribus unum
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Micrometeoroid
A MICROMETEOROID is a tiny meteoroid ; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram . A micrometeorite is such a particle that survives passage through the Earth\'s atmosphere and reaches the Earth's surface. CONTENTS * 1 Scientific interest * 2 Effect on spacecraft operations * 3 Footnotes * 4 See also * 5 External links SCIENTIFIC INTEREST See also: Cosmic dust Micrometeoroids are very small pieces of rock or metal broken off from larger chunks of rock and debris often dating back to the birth of the Solar System . Micrometeoroids are extremely common in space. Tiny particles are a major contributor to space weathering processes. When they hit the surface of the Moon , or any airless body (Mercury , the asteroids , etc.), the resulting melting and vaporization causes darkening and other optical changes in the regolith
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: ( listen )), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: ( listen )), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian : СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic . The Russian nation had constitutionally equal status among the many nations of the union but exerted de facto dominance in various respects
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Lunar Atmosphere And Dust Environment Explorer
ENVIRONMENT may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Physical and cultural settings * 2 In arts and entertainment * 3 In computing * 4 Natural environment
Natural environment
* 5 Other uses PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL SETTINGS * Environment (biophysical)
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Space Program
LISTS OF SPACE PROGRAMS include: * List of government space agencies * List of private spaceflight
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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomy
Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun
Sun
and the only object in the Universe
Universe
known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth
Earth
formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
, Earth's only natural satellite . Earth
Earth
revolves around the Sun
Sun
in 365.26 days, a period known as an Earth
Earth
year . During this time, Earth
Earth
rotates about its axis about 366.26 times. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface
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Moon Goddess
In mythology , a LUNAR DEITY is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon . These deities can have a variety of functions and traditions depending upon the culture, but they are often related. Some form of moon worship can be found in most ancient religions. CONTENTS * 1 Moon
Moon
in religion and mythology * 2 The list * 2.1 Near East * 2.2 Africa * 2.3 Europe * 2.4 Asia * 2.5 Oceania * 2.6 Mesoamerica * 2.7 South America * 2.8 North America * 3 See also * 4 References MOON IN RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGYThe monthly cycle of the moon, in contrast to the annual cycle of the sun's path, has been implicitly linked to women's menstrual cycles by many cultures, as evident in the links between the words for menstruation and for moon in many resultant languages
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Circular Orbit
A CIRCULAR ORBIT is the orbit at a fixed distance around any point by an object rotating around a fixed axis . Below we consider a circular orbit in astrodynamics or celestial mechanics under standard assumptions. Here the centripetal force is the gravitational force, and the axis mentioned above is the line through the center of the central mass perpendicular to the plane of motion. In this case, not only the distance, but also the speed, angular speed, potential and kinetic energy are constant. There is no periapsis or apoapsis. This orbit has no radial version. CONTENTS * 1 Circular acceleration * 2 Velocity * 3 Equation of motion * 4 Angular speed and orbital period * 5 Energy * 6 Delta-v to reach a circular orbit * 7 Orbital velocity in general relativity * 7.1 Derivation * 8 See also CIRCULAR ACCELERATIONTransverse acceleration (perpendicular to velocity) causes change in direction
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