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Lunar Orbit
In astronomy , LUNAR ORBIT (also known as a SELENOCENTRIC ORBIT) refers to the orbit of an object around the Moon
Moon
. As used in the space program , this refers not to the orbit of the Moon
Moon
about the Earth
Earth
, but to orbits by various manned or unmanned spacecraft around the Moon. The altitude at apoapsis (point farthest from the surface) for a lunar orbit is known as APOLUNE, APOCYNTHION or APOSELENE, while the periapsis (point closest to the surface) is known as PERILUNE, PERICYNTHION or PERISELENE, from names or epithets of the moon goddess . LOW LUNAR ORBIT (LLO)—orbits below 100 kilometres (62 mi) altitude—are of particular interest in exploration of the moon, but suffer from gravitational perturbation effects that make most unstable, and leave only a few orbital inclinations possible for indefinite frozen orbits , useful for long-term stays in LLO
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Orbit Of The Moon
The Moon
Moon
orbits Earth
Earth
in the prograde direction and completes one revolution relative to the stars in approximately 27.323 days (a sidereal month ) and one revolution relative to the Sun
Sun
in approximately 29.530 days (a synodic month ). Earth
Earth
and the Moon
Moon
orbit about their barycentre (common center of mass), which lies about 4,600 km (2,900 mi) from Earth's center (about 3/4 of the radius of Earth). On average, the distance to the Moon
Moon
is about 385,000 km (239,000 mi) from Earth's center, which corresponds to about 60 Earth
Earth
radii. With a mean orbital velocity of 1.022 km/s (2,290 mph), the Moon
Moon
appears to move relative to the stars each hour by an amount roughly equal to its angular diameter , or by about half a degree
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Apollo 8
Left to right: Lovell, Anders, Borman Apollo program Apollo 7 Apollo 9 → APOLLO 8, the second human spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program , was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first crewed spacecraft to leave Earth orbit , reach the Earth's Moon , orbit it and return safely to Earth
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Astronomy
ASTRONOMY (from Greek : αστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena. It applies mathematics , physics , and chemistry , in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution . Objects of interest include planets , moons , stars , galaxies , and comets ; while the phenomena include supernova explosions , gamma ray bursts , and cosmic microwave background radiation . More generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earth\'s atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy. A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole. Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians , Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , and Maya performed methodical observations of the night sky
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Planetary Orbit
In physics , an ORBIT is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object , such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet. Normally, orbit refers to a regularly repeating trajectory, although it may also refer to a non-repeating trajectory. To a close approximation, planets and satellites follow elliptic orbits , with the central mass being orbited at a focal point of the ellipse, as described by Kepler\'s laws of planetary motion . Current understanding of the mechanics of orbital motion is based on Albert Einstein 's general theory of relativity , which accounts for gravity as due to curvature of spacetime , with orbits following geodesics . For ease of calculation, in most situations, orbital motion is adequately approximated by Newtonian mechanics
Newtonian mechanics
, which explains gravity as a force obeying an inverse square law
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter's satellite Io , the Moonis second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moonis thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moonformed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earthand a Mars-sized body called Theia
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Space Program
LISTS OF SPACE PROGRAMS include: * List of government space agencies
List of government space agencies
* List of private spaceflight companies Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lists_of_space_programs additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Earth
EARTH is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life . According to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed over 4 billion years ago . Earth\'s gravity interacts with other objects in space, especially the Sun and the Moon , Earth's only natural satellite . During one orbit around the Sun , Earth rotates about its axis about 365.26 times; thus, an Earth year is about 365.26 days long. Earth's axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides , stabilizes the Earth's orientation on its axis, and gradually slows its rotation. Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets
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Apoapsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsɪdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrɪˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Periapsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsᵻdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes peri- (from περί (peri), meaning 'near') and ap-, or apo- (from ἀπ(ό) (ap(ó)), meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun
Sun
, the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrᵻˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Moon Goddess
In mythology , a LUNAR DEITY is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the moon . These deities can have a variety of functions and traditions depending upon the culture, but they are often related. Some form of moon worship can be found in most ancient religions. CONTENTS * 1 Moon
Moon
in religion and mythology * 2 The list * 2.1 Near East * 2.2 Africa * 2.3 Europe * 2.4 Asia * 2.5 Oceania * 2.6 Mesoamerica * 2.7 South America * 2.8 North America * 3 See also * 4 References MOON IN RELIGION AND MYTHOLOGYThe monthly cycle of the moon, in contrast to the annual cycle of the sun's path, has been implicitly linked to women's menstrual cycles by many cultures, as evident in the links between the words for menstruation and for moon in many resultant languages
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Frozen Orbit
In orbital mechanics , a FROZEN ORBIT is an orbit for an artificial satellite in which natural drifting due to the central body 's shape has been minimized by careful selection of the orbital parameters . Typically this is an orbit where, over a long period of time, the altitude remains constant at the same point in each orbit — changes in the inclination , position of the lowest point of the orbit , and eccentricity have been minimized by choosing initial values so that their perturbations cancel out. This results in a long-term stable orbit that minimizes the use of station-keeping propellant
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. _Sovetsky Soyuz_; IPA: ), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR; Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР), tr. _Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)_; IPA: (_ listen )), also known unofficially as RUSSIA (Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossiya_; IPA: ), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple equal national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party federation , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital
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Luna 1
LUNA 1, also known as MECHTA (Russian : Мечта, lit. : Dream), E-1 NO.4 and First Lunar Rover , was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon
Moon
, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit . Intended as an impactor, Luna 1
Luna 1
was launched as part of the Soviet Luna programme in 1959, however due to an incorrectly timed upper stage burn during its launch, it missed the Moon, in the process becoming the first spacecraft to leave geocentric orbit . While traveling through the outer Van Allen radiation belt
Van Allen radiation belt
, the spacecraft's scintillator made observations indicating that a small number of high energy particles exist in the outer belt. The measurements obtained during this mission provided new data on the Earth's radiation belt and outer space . The Moon
Moon
was found to have no detectable magnetic field
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Luna 3
LUNA 3, or E-2A NO.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme
Luna programme
. It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon
Moon
. It was also the third space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon
Moon
,. Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic, never-before-seen views of the far side of the Moon
Moon
caused excitement and interest when they were published around the world, and a tentative Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon
Moon
was created after image processing improved the pictures. These views showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark, low-lying regions which were named Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Desire)
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Circumlunar Trajectory
A CIRCUMLUNAR TRAJECTORY, TRANS-LUNAR TRAJECTORY or LUNAR FREE RETURN is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon
Moon
, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set. BACKGROUNDThe first spacecraft to fly a circumlunar trajectory was Luna 3 . Circumlunar trajectories