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Lunar Eclipse
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon
Moon
passes directly behind Earth
Earth
and into its shadow. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and the Moon are aligned (in syzygy) exactly or very closely so, with the planet in between. Hence, a lunar eclipse can occur only on the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend on the Moon's proximity to either node of its orbit. During a total lunar eclipse, Earth
Earth
completely blocks direct sunlight from reaching the Moon. The only light reflected from the lunar surface has been refracted by Earth's atmosphere. This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
of bluer light
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Mayan Mythology
Maya mythology
Maya mythology
is part of Mesoamerican mythology and comprises all of the Maya tales in which personified forces of nature, deities, and the heroes interacting with these play the main roles. Other parts of Maya oral tradition (such as animal tales and many moralising stories) do not properly belong to the domain of mythology, but rather to legend and folk tale.Contents1 Sources 2 Important mythical themes2.1 Creation and end of the world 2.2 The Corn Men 2.3 Actions of the heroes: Arranging the world 2.4 Marriage with the Earth 2.5 Origin of Sun and Moon3 Reconstructing pre-Spanish mythology 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Bibliography and references 7 External linksSources[edit] The oldest written Maya myths date from the 16th century and are found in historical sources from the Guatemalan Highlands
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Apogee
An apsis (Greek: ἁψίς; plural apsides /ˈæpsɪdiːz/, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit
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Orbital Speed
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body. The speed in this latter case may be relative to the surface of the larger body or relative to its center of mass. The term can be used to refer to either the mean orbital speed, i.e. the average speed over an entire orbit, or its instantaneous speed at a particular point in its orbit. Maximum (instantaneous) orbital speed occurs at periapsis (perigee, perhelion, etc.), while minimum speed for objects in closed orbits occurs at apoapsis (aphelion, apogee, etc.)
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Angular Diameter
The angular diameter, angular size, apparent diameter, or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view. In the vision sciences, it is called the visual angle, and in optics, it is the angular aperture (of a lens). The angular diameter can alternatively be thought of as the angle through which an eye or camera must rotate to look from one side of an apparent circle to the opposite side
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Solar Radiation
Solar irradiance
Solar irradiance
is the power per unit area received from the Sun
Sun
in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument. The solar irradiance integrated over time is called solar irradiation, insolation, or solar exposure. However, insolation is often used interchangeably with irradiance in practice. Irradiance may be measured in space or at the Earth's surface
Earth's surface
after atmospheric absorption and scattering
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Minneapolis
US: 46th MN: 1st • Density 7,660/sq mi (2,959/km2) • Metro 3,551,036 (US: 16th)[1] • CSA 4,197,883 (US: 14th)Demonym(s) MinneapolitanTime zone CST (UTC–6) • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC–5)ZIP Codes 55401–55488 (range includes some ZIP Codes for Minneapolis
Minneapolis
suburbs)Area code(s) 612FIPS code 27-43000GNIS feature ID 0655030[4]Website www.minneapolismn.gov
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Horizon
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not. At many locations, the true horizon is obscured by trees, buildings, mountains, etc., and the resulting intersection of earth and sky is called the visible horizon
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Penumbra
The umbra, penumbra and antumbra are three distinct parts of a shadow, created by any light source after impinging on an opaque object. For a point source only the umbra is cast. These names are most often used for the shadows cast by celestial bodies, though they are sometimes used to describe levels of darkness, such as in sunspots.Contents1 Umbra 2 Penumbra 3 Antumbra 4 See also 5 ReferencesUmbra[edit]Umbra, penumbra, and antumbra formed through windows and shuttersThe umbra (Latin for "shadow") is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse. The umbra of a round body occluding a round light source forms a right circular cone; to a viewer at the cone's apex, the two bodies are equal in apparent size
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Umbra
The umbra, penumbra and antumbra are three distinct parts of a shadow, created by any light source after impinging on an opaque object. For a point source only the umbra is cast. These names are most often used for the shadows cast by celestial bodies, though they are sometimes used to describe levels of darkness, such as in sunspots.Contents1 Umbra 2 Penumbra 3 Antumbra 4 See also 5 ReferencesUmbra[edit]Umbra, penumbra, and antumbra formed through windows and shuttersThe umbra (Latin for "shadow") is the innermost and darkest part of a shadow, where the light source is completely blocked by the occluding body. An observer in the umbra experiences a total eclipse. The umbra of a round body occluding a round light source forms a right circular cone; to a viewer at the cone's apex, the two bodies are equal in apparent size
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Night
Night
Night
or nighttime (sp. night-time or night time) is the period of time between sunset and sunrise, when the Sun
Sun
is below the horizon. Complete darkness or astronomical night is the period between astronomical dusk and astronomical dawn when the Sun
Sun
is between 18 and 90 degrees below the horizon and does not illuminate the sky. As seen from latitudes between 48.5° and 66.5° north or south (of the Equator), complete darkness does not occur around the summer solstice because although the Sun
Sun
sets, it is never more than 18° below the horizon at lower culmination. The opposite of night is day (or "daytime", to distinguish it from "day" referring to a 24-hour period). The start and end points of time for a night vary, based on factors such as season, latitude, longitude, and time zone
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Rayleigh Scattering
Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
(pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh
Lord Rayleigh
(John William Strutt),[1] is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation. Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
does not change the state of material and is, hence, a parametric process. The particles may be individual atoms or molecules. It can occur when light travels through transparent solids and liquids, but is most prominently seen in gases. Rayleigh scattering
Rayleigh scattering
results from the electric polarizability of the particles
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Sunrise
Sunrise
Sunrise
or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the horizon in the morning.[1] The term can also refer to the entire process of the Sun
Sun
crossing the horizon and its accompanying atmospheric effects.[2]Contents1 Terminology1.1 "Rise" 1.2 Beginning and end2 Measurement2.1 Angle 2.2 Time of day 2.3 Location on the horizon3 Appearance3.1 Colors 3.2 Optical illusions and other phenomena4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTerminology[edit] "Rise"[edit] Although the Sun
Sun
appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the Earth's motion that causes the Sun
Sun
to appear
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Sunset
Sunset
Sunset
or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun
Sun
below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation. The Sun
Sun
will set exactly due west at the equator on the spring and fall equinoxes, each of which occurs only once a year.Subcategories of twilightThe time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the trailing edge of the Sun's disk disappears below the horizon
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Earth's Atmosphere
The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth
Earth
and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere of Earth
Earth
protects life on Earth
Earth
by creating pressure allowing for liquid water to exist on the Earth's surface, absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,[2] 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere
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Atmospheric Refraction
Atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric refraction
is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height.[1] This refraction is due to the velocity of light through air, decreasing (the refractive index increases) with increased density. Atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric refraction
near the ground produces mirages and can make distant objects appear to shimmer or ripple, elevated or lowered, stretched or shortened, with no mirage involved. The term also applies to the refraction of sound. Atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric refraction
is considered in measuring the position of both astronomical and terrestrial objects. Astronomical or celestial refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality
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