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Luna 3
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme. It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon
Moon
and the third Soviet space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon.[3] Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic, never-before-seen views of the far side of the Moon
Moon
caused excitement and interest when they were published around the world, and a tentative Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon
Moon
was created after image processing improved the pictures. These views showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark, low-lying regions which were named Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Desire). Mare Desiderii was later found to be composed of a smaller mare, Mare Ingenii (Sea of Ingenuity), and several other dark craters
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Photocell
Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.[1] A photo detector has a p–n junction that converts light photons into current. The absorbed photons make electron–hole pairs in the depletion region. Photodiodes and photo transistors are a few examples of photo detectors
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Solar Cell
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.[1] It is a form of photoelectric cell, defined as a device whose electrical characteristics, such as current, voltage, or resistance, vary when exposed to light. Individual solar cell devices can be combined to form modules, otherwise known as solar panels. In basic terms a single junction silicon solar cell can produce a maximum open-circuit voltage of approximately 0.5 to 0.6 volts.[2] Solar cells are described as being photovoltaic, irrespective of whether the source is sunlight or an artificial light
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North Pole
Coordinates: 90°N 0°W / 90°N -0°E / 90; -0An azimuthal projection showing the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
and the North Pole. The map also shows the 75th parallel north
75th parallel north
and 60th parallel north. Sea ice
Sea ice
at the North Pole
North Pole
in 2006The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole
North Pole
or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole
North Pole
is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole. It defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north
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Mare Ingenii
Mare Ingenii
Mare Ingenii
("sea of cleverness") is one of the few lunar mare features on the far side of the Moon. The mare sits in the Ingenii basin. This basin material is of the Pre-Nectarian epoch. The mare material located in Ingenii and the surrounding craters is of the Upper Imbrian
Upper Imbrian
epoch. The dark circular feature which dominates this mare is the crater Thomson (112 km diameter), with the overflow from Ingenii/Thomson directly to the east. Mare Ingenii
Mare Ingenii
is incompletely and thinly covered over much of its expanse with mare lava sheets. The best flooding occurs in the crater Thomson in the ENE part of the Mare Ingenii
Mare Ingenii
basin
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USSR
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Gyroscope
A gyroscope (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῦρος gûros, "circle" and σκοπέω skopéō, "to look") is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.[1][2] It is a spinning wheel or disc in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation by itself. When rotating, the orientation of this axis is unaffected by tilting or rotation of the mounting, according to the conservation of angular momentum. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscopes found in electronic devices, solid-state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes, and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope. [3] Applications of gyroscopes include inertial navigation systems, such as in the Hubble telescope, or inside the steel hull of a submerged submarine
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International Designator
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites. It consists of the launch year, a 3-digit incrementing launch number of that year and up to a 3-letter code representing the sequential identifier of a piece in a launch.[citation needed] For example, 1990-037A is the Space Shuttle Discovery
Space Shuttle Discovery
on mission STS-31, which carried the Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope
(1990-037B) into space. This launch was the 37th known successful launch worldwide in 1990. The number reveals that it was launched in 1990 and that it was the 37th launch made that year
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Kilopascal
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit
SI derived unit
of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus
Young's modulus
and ultimate tensile strength. It is defined as one newton per square metre.[1] It is named after the French polymath Blaise Pascal. Common multiple units of the pascal are the hectopascal (1 hPa = 100 Pa) which is equal to one millibar, and the kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Pa) which is equal to one centibar. The unit of measurement called standard atmosphere (atm) is defined as 101325 Pa.[2] Meteorological reports typically state atmospheric pressure in millibars.Contents1 Etymology 2 Definition 3 Standard units 4 Uses4.1 Hectopascal and millibar units5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, noted for his contributions to hydrodynamics and hydrostatics, and experiments with a barometer
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Electric Power
Electric power
Electric power
is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit. The SI unit of power is the watt, one joule per second. Electric power
Electric power
is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries. It is usually supplied to businesses and homes by the electric power industry through an electric power grid. Electric power
Electric power
is usually sold by the kilowatt hour (3.6 MJ) which is the product of power in kilowatts multiplied by running time in hours
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Steklov Institute Of Mathematics
Steklov Institute of Mathematics
Mathematics
or Steklov Mathematical Institute (Russian: Математический институт имени В.А.Стеклова) is a premier research institute based in Moscow, specialized in mathematics, and a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The institute is named after Vladimir Andreevich Steklov, who in 1919 founded the Institute of Physics and Mathematics
Mathematics
in Leningrad. In 1934, this institute was split into separate parts for physics and mathematics, and the mathematical part became the Steklov Institute.[1] At the same time, it was moved to Moscow.[2] The first director of the Steklov Institute was Ivan Matveyevich Vinogradov[3] From 1961-1964, the institute's director was the notable mathematician Sergei Chernikov.[4] The old building of the Institute in Leningrad became its Department in Leningrad. Today, that department has become a separate institute, called the St
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Storage Batteries
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use. It is composed of one or more electrochemical cells. The term "accumulator" is used as it accumulates and stores energy through a reversible electrochemical reaction. Rechargeable batteries are produced in many different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network
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Antenna (radio)
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.[1] In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a receiver to be amplified. Antennas are essential components of all radio equipment, and are used in radio broadcasting, broadcast television, two-way radio, communications receivers, radar, cell phones, satellite communications and other devices. An antenna is an array of conductors (elements), electrically connected to the receiver or transmitter
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Radio Transmitter
In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth
Bluetooth
enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons. The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes; or radiolocation, such as radar and navigational transmitters
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Cosmic Ray
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System[1] and even from distant galaxies.[2] Upon impact with the Earth's atmosphere, cosmic rays can produce showers of secondary particles that sometimes reach the surface
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Attitude Control System
Attitude may refer to:Contents1 Psychology 2 Arts 3 Media 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Other meaningsPsychology[edit] Attitude (psychology), an acquired or predisposed mental state regarding an object with some degree of negativity which is perceived from a social or personal stimuli. Propositional attitude, a relational mental state connecting a person to a proposition.Arts[edit] Attitude (art), the posture or gesture given to a fi
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