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Luna 3
LUNA 3, or E-2A NO.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme
Luna programme
. It was the first-ever mission to photograph the far side of the Moon
Moon
. It was also the third space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon
Moon
,. Though it returned rather poor pictures by later standards, the historic, never-before-seen views of the far side of the Moon
Moon
caused excitement and interest when they were published around the world, and a tentative Atlas of the Far Side of the Moon
Moon
was created after image processing improved the pictures. These views showed mountainous terrain, very different from the near side, and only two dark, low-lying regions which were named Mare Moscoviense (Sea of Moscow) and Mare Desiderii (Sea of Desire)
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OKB-1
OAO S. P. KOROLEV ROCKET AND SPACE CORPORATION ENERGIA (Russian : Ракетно-космическая корпорация «Энергия» им. С. П. Королёва, translit. Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im. S. P. Koroleva), also known as RSC ENERGIA (РКК «Энергия», RKK “ENERGIYA”), is a Russian manufacturer of spacecraft and space station components. The company is the prime developer and contractor of the Russian manned spaceflight program; it also owns a majority of Sea Launch
Sea Launch
. Its name is derived from Sergei Korolev
Sergei Korolev
, the first chief of its design bureau, and the Russian word for energy
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Satellite Catalog Number
The SATELLITE CATALOG NUMBER (also known as NORAD CATALOG NUMBER, NASA CATALOG NUMBER, USSPACECOM OBJECT NUMBER or simply CATALOG NUMBER and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM ( United States Space Command ) to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification. Before USSPACECOM, the catalog was maintained by NORAD . The first catalogued object, catalog number 1957-001A, is the final stage of the rocket which launched Sputnik 1 and remained in orbit for almost two months. (Sputnik itself is 1957-001B and lasted in orbit an additional month.) As of 22 September 2016, the National Space Science Data Center Master Catalog listed more than 40,000 tracked objects including 7,576 satellites launched into orbit since 1957
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Luna (rocket)
The LUNA 8K72 vehicles were carrier rockets used by the Soviet Union for nine space probe launch attempts in the Luna programme between 23 September 1958 and 16 April 1960. Like many other Soviet launchers of that era the Luna 8K72 vehicles were derived from the R-7 Semyorka design (a variation of the Vostok ), which is also the basis for the modern Soyuz rocket . The first flight of a Luna 8K72 (September 1958), which was to launch the Luna E-1 No.1 probe, ended 92 seconds after launch when the rocket broke up from longitudinal vibration (a.k.a. POGO), causing the strap-ons to separate from the vehicle, which then crashed downrange. The second flight of a Luna 8K72 (October 1958), which was to launch the Luna E-1 No.2 probe, ended 104 seconds after launch when the rocket again disintegrated from vibration
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Baikonur Cosmodrome
BAIKONUR COSMODROME (Russian : Космодро́м Байкону́р KOSMODROM BAYKONUR; Kazakh : Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы _Bayqoñır ğarış aylağı_) is a spaceport located in southern Kazakhstan . Baikonur Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility . The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur , about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea and north of the river Syr Darya . It is near the Tyuratam railway station and is about 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level. The spaceport is currently leased by the Kazakh Government to Russia until 2050 , the spaceport is managed jointly by the Roscosmos State Corporation and the Russian Aerospace Forces
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Baikonur Cosmodrome Site 1
GAGARIN\'S START (Russian : Гагаринский старт, _Gagarinskij start_) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan , used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Gallery * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading OVERVIEWThe launchpad for the world's first human spaceflight made by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1 in 1961, the site was referred to as SITE NO.1 (Площадка №1, _Ploshchadka No. 1_) as the first one of its kind. It is also sometimes referred to as _NIIP-5 LC1_, _Baikonur LC1_ or _GIK-5 LC1_. On 17 March 1954 the Council of Ministers ordered several ministries to select a site for a proving ground to test the R-7 rocket by 1 January 1955
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Geocentric Orbit
A GEOCENTRIC ORBIT or EARTH ORBIT involves any object orbiting Planet Earth , such as the Moon or artificial satellites . In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite payloads orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center . Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earth's atmosphere
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Highly Elliptical Orbit
A HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL ORBIT (HEO) is an elliptic orbit with a low-altitude (often under 1,000 kilometres (540 nmi)) perigee and a high-altitude (often over 35,786 kilometres (19,323 nmi)) apogee .The "highly elliptical" term refers to the shape of the ellipse, and to the eccentricity of the orbit, not to the high apogee altitude. Such extremely elongated orbits have the advantage of long dwell times at a point in the sky during the approach to, and descent from, apogee. Visibility near apogee can exceed twelve hours of dwell at apogee with a much shorter and faster-moving perigee phase. Bodies moving through the long apogee dwell can appear still in the sky to the ground when the orbit is at the right inclination, where the angular velocity of the orbit in the equatorial plane closely matches the rotation of the surface beneath. This makes these elliptical orbits useful for communications satellites
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Circumlunar Trajectory
A CIRCUMLUNAR TRAJECTORY, TRANS-LUNAR TRAJECTORY or LUNAR FREE RETURN is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon
Moon
, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set. BACKGROUNDThe first spacecraft to fly a circumlunar trajectory was Luna 3 . Circumlunar trajectories were also used by Apollo missions prior to lunar orbit insertion, to provide a free return to Earth in the event of a propulsion system malfunction on the way to the Moon. This was used on Apollo 13 , when an oxygen tank rupture necessitated return to Earth without firing the Service Module engine, although a number of course corrections using the Lunar Module descent engine were required to maintain this trajectory
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Semi-major Axis
In geometry , the MAJOR AXIS of an ellipse is its longest diameter : a line segment that runs through the center and both foci , with ends at the widest points of the perimeter . The SEMI-MAJOR AXIS is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus , and to the perimeter. Essentially, it is the radius of an orbit at the orbit's two most distant points. For the special case of a circle, the semi-major axis is the radius . One can think of the semi-major axis as an ellipse's _long radius_. The length of the semi-major axis a {displaystyle a} of an ellipse is related to the semi-minor axis 's length b {displaystyle b} through the eccentricity e {displaystyle e} and the semi-latus rectum {displaystyle ell } , as follows: b = a 1 e 2 , = a ( 1 e 2 ) , a = b 2
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Orbital Eccentricity
The ORBITAL ECCENTRICITY of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle . A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit , and greater than 1 is a hyperbola . The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections , as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem , but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Etymology * 3 Calculation * 4 Examples * 5 Mean eccentricity * 6 Climatic effect * 7 Exoplanets * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION e=0 e=0.5 Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Apsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsᵻdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes _peri-_ (from περί _(peri)_, meaning 'near') and _ap-_, or _apo-_ (from ἀπ(ό) _(ap(ó))_, meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun , the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrᵻˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case is that the satellite's orbit is tilted; it spends half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Orbital Period
The ORBITAL PERIOD is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun , moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars , or binary stars . For objects in the Solar System , this is often referred to as the SIDEREAL PERIOD, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth orbiting the Sun. The name _sidereal_ is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky . When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the PERIOD. For example, Jupiter has a sidereal period of 11.86 years while the main binary star